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August 30th, 2006, 04:36 AM
August 26, 2006
The New Crossroads of the World

THE number of immigrants has increased five times as fast in the suburbs as in New York City since 2000, reversing historical migration patterns as new immigrants increasingly bypass the city in search of jobs and affordable housing across the region, new census data show.

According to figures released this month by the Census Bureau, the number of immigrants living in the region’s suburbs grew by about 225,000 from 2000 to 2005, compared with an increase of about 44,000 in the city during the same period. During the 1990’s, the number of immigrants grew by 788,000 in the city, compared with 632,000 in the suburbs, the data show.

“The inner city has shifted away from being the big center for job creation, and now jobs are being created in the suburbs,” said Douglas S. Massey, a Princeton University demographer. “Immigrants have followed.”

Job opportunities have also driven another striking trend that is apparent in the new census numbers: a sharp increase in the ranks of the college educated, among nonimmigrants and immigrants alike, a signal that the region continues to draw highly skilled and educated workers.

Together, these developments are helping to stratify the metropolitan region. Scattered pockets swell with immigrants in unprecedented numbers. But areas that include hot housing markets and gentrifying neighborhoods inside and outside New York City have declined in foreign-born populations, the new numbers show.

So the immigrants are settling in places like Bound Brook, N.J., an old working-class community on the Raritan River in Somerset County, causing friction with some residents over crowded housing.

And the influx of newcomers has created a demand for additional services in tax-strapped municipalities and strained some local school districts. But in some of these communities the increase in immigrants has revived fading downtowns and buoyed crucial parts of the local economy.

The new data from the Census Bureau’s American Community Survey show that the population of New York’s suburbs is now 21.3 percent foreign born, up from 19.2 percent in 2000 and 14.1 percent in 1990. The proportion of the city’s residents who are foreign-born grew only slightly in the last five years, to 36.6 percent from 35.9 percent, and in Manhattan and Brooklyn it declined.

Demographers say that some of the suburban wave is made up of immigrants with skills, like engineers and scientists. But mostly it is workers with few skills struggling to find accommodation in a place that has lots of opportunity, and housing that is hard to afford.

“It’s a bimodal phenomenon — the technology requirements of the suburban economy have needed scientists and engineers the United States wasn’t producing,” said James W. Hughes, dean of the Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy at Rutgers University. “At the same time you have increasingly lesser-educated immigrants moving for economic opportunity and affordable housing.”

In raw numbers, the biggest increases in foreign-born population in New York, New Jersey and Connecticut in the last five years are among Indians, up 82,000 to 333,000, and Mexicans, up 74,000 to 320,000. The number of Chinese, Filipinos and Ecuadoreans has also grown substantially since 2000.

Dominicans remain the largest foreign-born contingent in the three states at about 500,000, but their numbers have declined slightly in the last five years.

The new data provide a picture of suburban immigration painted in broad strokes. The American Community Survey provides information only for large groups and big geographic areas — Nassau County, for instance, is divided into 12 areas of about 100,000 people each. So it is not clear what is happening at the community level, although some inferences can be made by looking at data like school enrollments and previous censuses.

The fastest growing areas for immigrant populations on Long Island were in central Brookhaven, where Hispanics have been settling, and in Hicksville, a center for South Asian immigration. In both areas, the population of foreign-born residents has grown more than 35 percent in the last five years. In Connecticut, areas outside New Haven showed similar gains, as did northeastern Westchester.

In New Jersey, the fastest growth came in Newark, in the southern parts of Bergen and Somerset Counties, and in the suburban periphery of Hunterdon, Mercer and Sussex Counties, which all increased 35 percent or more as well.

In some areas, the foreign-born population has declined: on the eastern end of Long Island, in northern Oyster Bay and in the Five Towns in southwestern Nassau. In New Jersey, a broad area in central Monmouth County north of Asbury Park has lost 10 percent of its immigrant population in five years, and the large immigrant contingents in a number of urban areas, including Paterson and Passaic, stopped growing or declined.

Demographers say the pattern illustrates the immigrants’ struggle to find affordable housing as they seek access to the economic opportunities in the suburbs.

So the housing search takes them to places like Bound Brook.

“You do have a number of older boroughs, such as Bound Brook, that have a lot of older housing,” Dr. Hughes said. He said village centers, like the one in Peapack-Gladstone, also in Somerset County, sometimes have housing opportunities in small apartments and above commercial strips. In Woodbridge, in Middlesex County, large apartment complexes have become centers for immigrants, who coalesce around earlier migrants from the same culture or geography.

“There are little pockets of places, although it’s not high-quality housing to say the least,” Dr. Hughes said.

In many places, immigrants are turning single-family houses into multifamily dwellings. “In some cases they are splitting up single-family houses for use by two or three families,” said Seth Forman, the acting executive director of the Long Island Regional Planning Board. Long Island has little multifamily housing, and the practice of crowding multiple tenants into one home is considered widespread, though reliable figures are unavailable.

“It’s being done, although we don’t really know how much,” Dr. Forman said.

The practice occurs in the rest of the region as well, and causes great conflict.

Bound Brook is one of the oldest settlements in New Jersey, dating to 1681. The mayor, Frank J. Ryan, grew up there, delivering milk in the 1940’s for the family business. Since World War I, he said, several generations of Italian and Polish families have found work in nearby industries, and the place prospered as a working-class community.

“The workers came over from Italy as stonemasons, and their relatives came over and settled in Bound Brook,” Mr. Ryan said. “There was a lot of work around, blue-collar work. There was always plenty.”

The community has had a significant Hispanic population since at least 1990, according to the census. But Mr. Ryan said the Hispanic immigrants became more visible after floods from Hurricane Floyd devastated the area in 1999. In the aftermath, many people decided to sell their homes for what they could get and move on, and the housing began to fill rapidly with immigrants, he said.

Borough housing inspectors made nighttime inspections with police officers, and the United States Justice Department responded with a lawsuit against the borough for unfair housing practices that was settled in 2004. Mr. Ryan said the borough had done nothing wrong, but Bound Brook agreed to close monitoring of its housing inspections and paid damages to some of those who claimed harassment.

The borough’s increasing Hispanic population fills a void in the job market, the mayor said. “They work as laborers, in factories, or they clean the restaurants,” he said. “They’ve been moving up the ladder and getting better jobs, but as far as the housing, it’s still two or three families to a home.”

Advocates say immigrants have little choice in the suburbs but to share housing.

“We have a lot of people who live in an expensive area in Waldwick because they have jobs in the restaurant in a country club,” said Blanca Molina, who works with a Union City, N.J., immigrant advocacy group, Comite en Union Para Salvadoreños. “They rent a house in the area, and they put 10 or 12 people there. I don’t think that’s a good thing, but they don’t have other options.”

James Claffey, a board member of the Long Island Immigrant Alliance, said immigrants who want to work on the Island have to live close to their jobs because there is little public transportation.

“People criticize them for the way they live, but they don’t want to live doubled up in space,” he said. “They have no choice.”

The density of growing immigrant enclaves puts pressure on local governments and taxpayers. In Riverside in Burlington County, N.J., town leaders passed an ordinance banning the hiring and housing of immigrants who cannot prove their legal status.

“Overcrowding creates safety and sanitary issues that the municipalities have to deal with,” said Joseph F. Vitale, a state senator and the interim mayor of Woodbridge. “If a landlord creates a makeshift apartment, and he runs wires and plumbing to the basement, it could be unsafe. And because there are so many in the home, the trash at the curb is sometimes overwhelming.”

Dr. Massey, the Princeton demographer, said frictions with new immigrants were typical and could become more common as immigrant populations swell.

“At first, they’re kind of invisible,” he said of immigrants. “As their numbers grow, they meet increasing resistance.”

The wave also challenges schools. Hundreds of districts have had to add teachers to cope with language barriers. The Westbury school district in Nassau County has seen its population of students with limited English ability rise to 30 percent from 20 percent in five years. More children speak Spanish at home in Bound Brook’s Lafayette and Lamonte Schools than English.

The states bear some of the costs, but many schools have spent extra money on staff development and on reaching out to immigrant communities, which tend to be more insular and less involved in the schools.

“Some of our teachers have never taught populations such as these,” said Marc F. Bernstein, superintendent of the Valley Stream Central High School District on Long Island.

But even as they have added pressure to local governments, the new immigrants have also driven an economic revival in the pockets where they have settled.

“In Iselin, 15 years ago the business district was becoming a ghost town, and the Indian community came in and revived it,” Senator Vitale of Woodbridge said. “We have five downtown areas, and they’re all thriving.”

Dr. Forman said that immigrants had revived several Long Island communities, including Freeport, Elmont and Lawrence. “Those communities have developed downtown street life,” he said. “It may not be the suburban ideal of beautiful one-acre properties, but these are working people, and they’re stable, and they’re finding a way to provide for their families.”


Copyright 2006 The New York Times Company

August 30th, 2006, 09:58 AM
Jersey City has seen a 15-36% increase. Pretty cool!

September 28th, 2006, 08:34 AM
Really, the whole world has become the melting pot --Atlanta, Sweden, Suburbia-- as the Third World migrates to the First.

September 28th, 2006, 12:42 PM
Really, the whole world has become the melting pot --Atlanta, Sweden, Suburbia-- as the Third World migrates to the First.What's old is new, what's new is old.

One day, it'll be in reverse - from First back to Third. It's already happening in some places.

September 28th, 2006, 05:32 PM
One day, it'll be in reverse - from First back to Third. It's already happening in some places.

September 28th, 2006, 08:09 PM
Well, here for one.

I know quite a few people (including a couple of siblings) who have left this country and gone back to their homelands. Many cite an improved standard of living in their former countries in addition to lower costs of living.

Anyway, here's a Washington Post article (http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/04/21/AR2006042100585.html) talking about Americans and others immigrating to Argentina, of all places.

September 29th, 2006, 12:11 AM
Things may be tough here but it's hardly THIRD world ... (yet, anyway)

September 29th, 2006, 02:04 AM
Don't know about the "Third World", but there are several places around the World where "First World" foreign retirees have been "migrating" to...

One of Costa Rica's biggest industries must be the wave of retirement properties - catered towards Americans - developing along the Pacific-side coastline.

South Africa has been a well-kept secret for decades (like maybe 30 years) for to-die-for, cheap, oceanfront retirement properties on the south and east coasts. (Wish I had the funds to buy property before the Olympics go to SA. Probably too late already.)

There's some place along, I think, Spain's southeastern coast where there are so many British retirees that no one speaks Spanish in the area.

And Bulgaria, Romania and other Black Sea countries have been promoting retirement properties towards Europeans for at least 15 years (well, that's the first I heard about it).

Oh, um, back on topic...

September 29th, 2006, 07:16 AM
Spain and Argentina are not Third World.

September 29th, 2006, 01:35 PM
First, third, second, it doesn't matter.
The point is that immigration is no longer predominantly one-way. This will become more so as the developing world. . . well . . . develops.

September 29th, 2006, 01:38 PM
Very true Antinimby.

September 30th, 2006, 09:33 AM
There's some place along, I think, Spain's southeastern coast where there are so many British retirees that no one speaks Spanish in the area.

I'm from spain, i live in the north of, but i know how is the situation in the shouth and the rest of spain.
There are a lot of british, german, scandinavian and so on ppl living here, they do not speak spanish but it just representent a small % of the ppl who live there
Actually the biggest "problem" is that there are millions of ilegal (also legal) ingrimants. They cross from Africa in really small and bad boats to the south of Spain and Canary Islands. The come without know the language, without legal papers, without job, with anything...it's really sad to watch the news every day of how many inmigrants arrive in this kind of boats.
An imagine is better than thousand words

It is also nice to heard that Spain is not the Third World....actually, when we are the 8th economy in the world.
Sorry for my english. If I explain something bad, just ask and i will try to explain it better

September 30th, 2006, 10:26 AM
Hi Michi ...

I have for a long time wanted to travel to the north of Spain (the closest that I have been to your region is Burgos -- fantastic, very beautfiul people there ;) -- from there I traveled west through Valladolid to Lisbon then south to Sagres before heading back through southern Spain: Sevilla, Cordoba & Granada -- a great trip that was :) ).

I was looking at some websites with info of Asturia (for one, here is a local live (http://local.live.com/?v=2&cid=DACF965AC70D70DE!109) interactive map) ...

If you know can you tell me about the ease of train travel from east to west through Asturia (and Mieres / Oviedo / Gijon) and on to La Coruna ...

My idea is to travel from San Sebastian or Bilbao across the north of Spain and then down to Portugal.

It seems a great trip would be by boat from Gijon west around the point of Cape Ortegal to La Coruna and then down the Atlantic Coast of Galicia, the Cies Islands and on to Lisbon. But for this I don't know if I have the time (or the money :( ).

And to travel that same route on land might best be done by auto (rather than by train), yes?

October 1st, 2006, 11:28 AM
First, third, second, it doesn't matter.
Then why do you refer to it immediately after dismissing it? Or does changing its name to "developing" change its nature?

The point is that immigration is no longer predominantly one-way.
Nonsense. ;) (Dictionary says "predominantly" means “most commonly or conspicuously.” :) )

Perhaps when you say "no longer predominantly" you mean "no longer exclusively," but even that ignores that there was once much more migration than today from European countries to such destinations as India, Malaya, Rhodesia and Paraguay.

Just setting the record straight. :)

Also, see Michi's post above.

October 1st, 2006, 03:30 PM
Lofter1, you seem to have everything under control. Nice to know some new yorkers know about Mieres hehe.

October 2nd, 2006, 01:22 PM
Michi, I think lofter is expecting more info from you.

ablarc, don't get all caught up in wording. You know exactly what I mean. Stop being a lawyer and scrutinize every word for appropriateness. :D

Just answer this question: will the FIRST world be the sole recipients of immigrants from the developing...err...THIRD (happy now?) world in the future?

If your answer is no, then I rest my case. ;)

October 2nd, 2006, 02:49 PM
ablarc, don't get all caught up in wording. You know exactly what I mean. Stop being a lawyer and scrutinize every word for appropriateness.

October 2nd, 2006, 05:46 PM
Part of the problem is that the old terms "First", "Second" & "Third" World don't really apply anymore.

Globalization has mixed it all up.

October 2nd, 2006, 06:05 PM
Especially since we've slipped to second.

October 2nd, 2006, 11:14 PM
^^^ What?

October 3rd, 2006, 08:45 AM
First, Second and Third World


Worlds within the World?

The First, the Second, and the Third World.

When people talk about the poorest countries of the world, they often refer to them with the general term Third World, and they think everybody knows what they are talking about. But when you ask them if there is a Third World, what about a Second or a First World, you almost always get an evasive answer. Other people even try to use the terms as a ranking scheme for the state of development of countries, with the First world on top, followed by the Second world and so on, that's perfect - nonsense.

To close the gap of information you will find here explanations of the terms.

The use of the terms First, the Second, and the Third World is a rough, and it's safe to say, outdated model of the geopolitical world from the time of the cold war.

There is no official definition of the first, second, and the third world. Below OWNO's explanation of the terms.

Four Worlds

After World War II the world split into two large geopolitical blocs and spheres of influence with contrary views on government and the politically correct society:

1 - The bloc of democratic-industrial countries within the American influence sphere, the "First World".

2 - The Eastern bloc of the communist-socialist states, the "Second World".

3 - The remaining three-quarters of the world's population, states not aligned with either bloc were regarded as the "Third World."

4 - The term "Fourth World", coined in the early 1970s by Shuswap Chief George Manuel, refers to widely unknown nations (cultural entities) of indigenous peoples, "First Nations" living within or across national state boundaries.

First there was the three worlds model

The origin of the terminology is unclear. In 1952 Alfred Sauvy, a French demographer, wrote an article in the French magazine L'Observateur which ended by comparing the Third World with the Third Estate: "ce Tiers Monde ignoré, exploité, méprisé comme le Tiers État" (this ignored Third World, exploited, scorned like the Third Estate). Other sources claim that Charles de Gaulle coined the term Third World, maybe de Gaulle only has quoted Sauvy. However...


http://www.nationsonline.org/buttons/point.gif The term "First World" refers to so called developed, capitalist, industrial countries, roughly, a bloc of countries aligned with the United States after word war II, with more or less common political and economic interests: North America, Western Europe, Japan and Australia.

http://www.nationsonline.org/buttons/pfeil_r.gif Countries of the "First World" (http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/first_world.htm)

http://www.nationsonline.org/buttons/point.gif "Second World" refers to the former communist-socialist, industrial states, (formerly the Eastern bloc, the territory and sphere of influence of the Union of Soviet Socialists Republic) today: Russia, Eastern Europe (e.g., Poland) and some of the Turk States (e.g., Kazakhstan) as well as China.

http://www.nationsonline.org/buttons/pfeil_r.gif Countries of the "Second World" (http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/second_world.htm)

http://www.nationsonline.org/buttons/point.gif "Third World" are all the other countries, today often used to roughly describe the developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America.

The term Third World includes as well capitalist (e.g., Venezuela) and communist (e.g., North Korea) countries as very rich (e.g., Saudi Arabia) and very poor (e.g., Mali) countries.

http://www.nationsonline.org/buttons/pfeil_r.gif Countries of the "Third World" (http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/third_world.htm)

http://www.nationsonline.org/buttons/point.gif The term "Fourth World" first came into use in 1974 with the publication of Shuswap Chief George Manuel's: http://www.nationsonline.org/buttons/p1_out.gif The fourth world : an Indian reality (http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0029756200/oneworldnatioonl) (amazon link to the book), the term refers to nations (cultural entities, ethnic groups) of indigenous peoples living within or across state boundaries (nation states).

see http://www.nationsonline.org/buttons/pfeil_r.gif Native American Indians (http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/native_americans.htm) American Indian Nations.

More links to nations of the "Fourth World" you will find at the Nations Online Project respective country pages under "Natives".

The three worlds model


Copyright © 1998-2006 :: nationsonline.org (http://www.nationsonline.org/)


October 8th, 2006, 11:16 AM
Turkey was green on that map mostly because it was in NATO; otherwise it would have been red.

October 8th, 2006, 01:31 PM
And that ^^^ gets to the crux of the problem regarding the 1st / 2nd 3rd World labels ...

Back in the day they were as much political designations as economic.

Now it's all jumbled up ...

South Korea = 3rd World?

Chile = 3rd World?

South Africa = 3rd World?

October 8th, 2006, 01:49 PM
^ Yeah, Argentina should have been green on that map.

October 9th, 2006, 08:49 AM
Michi, I think lofter is expecting more info from you.

We're talking about it in private messages because this thread is about other thing :)
if anyone need information about spain just ask

August 9th, 2007, 07:13 AM
August 9, 2007
Asians Make Broad Gains in New York Population

Asians were the only major racial or ethnic group to record population gains in every county in the New York metropolitan region since 2005, according to census figures released yesterday.

The Hispanic population grew in most counties, except New York (the borough of Manhattan), Kings (Brooklyn) and Hudson in New Jersey. The number of blacks declined in every borough except Richmond (Staten Island) and in some suburban counties. Whites increased in only two counties in the region: New York and Kings.

In the city, the growth among whites in those counties and the decline in black residents reflected a continued, if modest, reversal of patterns that had seemed immutable until the beginning of this decade.

But the dispersal of the black and Hispanic population to the outer suburbs appeared to be mirroring a national pattern. Within just a few years, the New York metropolitan region — which includes the nearby counties of New York, Connecticut and New Jersey — is projected to become the first large metropolitan area outside the South or the West where non-Hispanic whites are a minority.

But non-Hispanic white New York City residents became a minority in each borough except Staten Island by 1990, as they did in Hudson and Essex Counties in New Jersey. Union County, N.J., is on the brink of tipping, with Middlesex County, N.J., not far behind.

Since 2000, New York has recorded the greatest increase in Asians (309,773) of any metropolitan area (Queens was fourth among all 3,100 counties, with 58,515). The largest percentage increases in the city were on Staten Island (35 percent) and in Manhattan (20 percent).

From 2005 to 2006, the number of Asians increased by more than 10 percent in three New Jersey counties: Gloucester, Salem and Warren.

Metropolitan New York ranked fourth nationally in growth among Hispanic residents (418,720). Since 2000, the Hispanic population increased by 31 percent on Staten Island.

“New York is one of the cities being propped up by the growth in the Hispanic population,” said Mark Mather, a demographer with the Population Reference Bureau in Washington.

Since 2005, though, according to the census, their ranks declined slightly in Manhattan, Brooklyn and Hudson County, N.J. The biggest increases among the Hispanic population in the metropolitan area during that period were by more than 9 percent in Litchfield County in Connecticut and by more than 7 percent in Warren County, N.J.

Since 2000, the New York metropolitan region lost nearly 250,000 white residents. The largest decline was in Nassau County (71,651), followed by Queens (59,056). Since 2000, the Bronx lost nearly 11 percent of its white population; Manhattan’s rose by nearly 9 percent.

From 2005 to 2006, according to Census Bureau results released yesterday, Union, Bergen and Hudson Counties in New Jersey and Nassau and Queens Counties in New York posted the biggest white percentage declines.

Since 2005, the black population declined in the city and several suburbs, including Westchester and Rockland Counties, Fairfield County in Connecticut and Passaic, Hudson and Essex Counties in New Jersey. But it increased on Staten Island, in Nassau and Suffolk Counties and, in New Jersey, in Union, Morris and Bergen Counties.

Since the beginning of the decade, the biggest increase among blacks, nearly 102 percent, was at the western fringe of metropolitan New York, in Pike County, Pa., across the Delaware River.

Since 2005, among the largest population percentage gains, more than 6 percent, were in Putnam County in the Hudson Valley and in Warren County, N.J.


Copyright 2007 The New York Times Company

August 9th, 2007, 04:11 PM
Is Newark really part of the NYC metropolitan area because sometimes I see Newark Metro area(2,000,000+).

August 9th, 2007, 05:14 PM
Is Newark really part of the NYC metropolitan area because sometimes I see Newark Metro area(2,000,000+).

JC and Newark have their own respective metro areas apart of the greater nyc metro area. I think NYCs is called the NY-Newark-Bridgeport statistical area...I think