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Thread: Alternative Cars/Vehicles

  1. #31

    Default Crossbreeds of Land Vehicles - Carver's VentureOne aka The Carver

    Crossbreeds of Land Vehicles:
    Motor-cycle and Motor Car All in One

    Carver's VentureOne DVC Technology does it with either
    Hybrid Electric or Electric Only engines!

    The VentureOne
    Revolutionary. Radical. Innovative. Very Cool.

    When true vision meets paradigm, paradigm always blinks first.

    Introducing the VentureOne, a revolutionary 3-wheel, tilting, plug-in Hybrid vehicle. This unique 2-passenger flex-fuel Hybrid vehicle is projected to achieve 100 miles per gallon, accelerate from 0-60 in about 7 seconds, and with a top speed of over 100 mph.

    And if that weren’t enough, imagine combining the performance feel of a sports car with the agility of a motorcycle. It adds up to an exhilarating driving experience that can only be compared to flying a jet fighter two feet off the ground.

    The VentureOne is a fully enclosed vehicle that is surrounded by a steel “safety cell” and other safety features typically found only in cars—things like side impact beams, driver airbag, rear bumper and engine shield.

    While the same height and length as the MINI Cooper, the driver in the VentureOne sits as high off the road as a BMW 3-series. When combined with its 360° glass canopy effect, the VentureOne not only provides a driver with tremendous road visibility, but will add to a sense of overall driving confidence.

    The VentureOne is a revolutionary new vision in transportation.

    “Flying the Road” is the best description for driving this vehicle –
    a feeling unlike anything you’ve experienced.

    The VentureOne will weigh approximately 1,500 pounds in prototype form, with an overall width of 52 inches, a length of 11' 8", and a 110 inch wheelbase. The engine will be located in the rear of the vehicle at a low height. The passenger compartment and the front wheel will tilt when cornering; however, the forces will be aligned with the vertical axis of the driver’s body, resulting in the driver being pressed into the seat rather than pushed across it.

    The VentureOne will have an enclosed body. The reinforced roll-cage construction in combination with front-and-side-impact protection, and a highly efficient passenger restraint system, give the occupants a level of protection comparable to conventional cars.

    The VentureOne will contain standard and optional equipment
    identical to conventional motor vehicles –
    including optional GPS navigation, cruise control,
    HVAC, and personal entertainment systems.

    For over a decade, Carver Engineering B.V., a Netherlands-based engineering firm, has been developing Dynamic Vehicle Control, or DVC™, technology in order to enable a new class of tilting three-wheeled vehicles. Originally conceived in 1994, DVC technology has gone through 18 different generations, and is now essentially perfected.

    The Carver holds the road by leaning in a turn like a motorcycle –
    a motorcycle with cupholders, that is.

    Carver Engineering was faced with the challenge of designing a slender vehicle that would not fall over, as most slim vehicles were prone. Their solution was to make the vehicle do what two-wheeled vehicles did, tilt when cornering. However, due to the size and weight required to make the vehicle enclosed, the tilting operation could not be left to the driver’s control. Therefore, an automatic system that takes over the balance control was required in order to maintain the ideal tilting angles under all imaginable driving conditions, such as at all speeds and accelerations and during rapid emergency maneuvers, and also on slippery or slanting road surfaces. The result was DVC technology, a hydro-mechanical system that splits the steering input from the driver into a front-wheel steering angle and a tilting angle of the chassis.

    This predictable, intuitive, and easy to use system automatically adjusts the distribution between the front-wheel angle and tilting angle at varying speeds and road conditions to ensure balance under all circumstances. At lower speeds the steering input is fully directed to the front wheel and the vehicle remains upright. As the vehicle increases speed, the input is more translated into a tilting angle and not into a front-wheel angle. The DVC system operates on a combination of hydraulic and mechanical technologies for a high reliability, quick response and natural “feel”.


    The VentureOne’s Hybrid powertrain presents additional technical advantages. In comparison with a traditional internal combustion engine, hybrid system is relatively simple and far more efficient. The VentureOne will be offered in both HEV and PHEV configurations.

    Calculations & Assumptions

    Venture Vehicles has made preliminary estimated power calculations using conservative assumptions. The assumptions made include a sub-optimal drag coefficient, 0.32, a heavier vehicle, 1,500 lbs., and a heavier driver, 200 lbs. Even with the aforementioned assumptions, the results show extraordinary acceleration performance, and a maximum speed in excess of 100 mph. The results also show more than adequate performance over grades as great as 12%. As a result of the testing, the company is confident that a 2.4 kWh power reserve is sufficient and would allow for a 10 mile “EV only” range.

    Creating Sustainable energy solutions have been part of Venture Vehicle's plans from the very start – Hybrids are just the first part of that goal.

    Fuel economy and low emissions are to be expected for small vehicles, and the VentureOne is no exception. With the narrower shape and smaller size of the VentureOne, owners will enjoy dramatically reduce fuel consumption compared to other conventional vehicles –

    The VentureOne's Hybrid propulsion system combining a fuel-efficient internal combustion engine with advanced battery technologies – will be also take energy normally lost as heat braking and return it to the battery, increasing the vehicle's overall system efficiency.

    Powered by its hybrid or plug-in hybrid drivetrain, and combined with its low weight, the VentureOne is extremely energy-efficient, has low or no emissions, and provides a practical and economical alternative to other low-emission concepts.

    Both hybrid versions are targeted to achieve 100 mpg in fuel efficiency, at speeds of over 100mph.

    Passenger safety is a primary goal of Venture Vehicles.

    The VentureOne will come equipped with a full complement of standard safety features, such as a driver's airbag, side-impact rails, a steel roll cage, and a highly efficient passenger restraint system, giving the occupants a level of protection comparable to conventional cars

    Venture Vehicles will also be conducting rigorous safety and crash testing for the VentureOne as well as any future vehicles developed.


  2. #32

    Default Crossbreeds of Land Vehicles - Videos on Carver's VentureOne

    Videos on Carver's VentureOne

    Glimpses of How it was Developed, and How It Works

    To Access YouTube Video

    Courtesy Metaefficient

    Runtime 04:21

    TopGear’s take on VentureOne,
    as seen on both BBC and Discovery Channel

    To Access YouTube Video

    Courtesy Metaefficient

    Runtime 06:33

    KTLA in Los Angeles, takes a Pedestrian Look -
    A Full Tank, meaning Four Gallons, can translate into
    350 Miles of Conventional City/Highway Motoring

    To Access YouTube Video

    flickr / siegel_jackie

    Runtime 02:47

  3. #33

    Default Crossbreeds of Land Vehicles - Carver's VentureOne projected for 2009

    In 2007 the projected prices for VentureOne's official debut in 2009, ranged between $20,000 (E50) and $25,000 (EV). You will also note the company is based in California, although primary research began and continued in the Netherlands until completed. Pictures of vehicle vary due to external reworkings of the model packages. The picture below is a test model.

    IN BRIEF: Venture Vehicles to Produce Three-Wheeled Alternative Car ...
    Venture Vehicles says two-seater hybrid will hit streets in 2009. ...

    by: Rachel Barron and Jennifer Kho
    October 25, 2007

    Driving Tron-Style

    Startup Venture Vehicles said this week it is on track to role out two versions of its three-wheeled alternative vehicle in the second quarter of 2009 (see this video).

    The tilting two-seater is Tron-like in appearance and is called VentureOne, the company said at the Dow Jones Alternative Energy Innovations conference Wednesday in Redwood City, Calif.

    Venture Vehicles says its alternative three-wheeler will debut in 2009.
    Source: Venture Vehicles

    Customers will be able to choose between a plug-in hybrid that gets about 100 miles per gallon by replacing some gasoline with electricity and can hit top speeds of 100 mph, or a fully electric version that can drive about 120 miles between charges and reach top speeds of about 70 mph.

    The Los Angeles-based company hopes people looking for a cool, energy-efficient first car, or families wanting a second or third commuter car, will be ready to buy.

    The plug-in hybrid is expected to cost about $20,000, while the all-electric version will set folks back about $25,000.

    Analysts have said the vehicle's unique design, which equates to less cargo room and a one-of-a-kind driving experience as drivers are tilted side-to-side while hugging a turn, might not entice mainstream buyers.

    Still, Venture Vehicles has been able to attract $6 million in its first venture round backed by NGEN Partners in July and about $600,000 from friends and family so far.

    CEO Howard Levine said the company plans to launch in California and then will expand into New York.

    Venture Vehicles isn't the only company pursuing the three-wheeled small-vehicle market. In September, Aptera Motors said it was moving into production for all-electric and hybrid versions of its three-wheeler (see In Brief: What Would Spock Drive?). …

    Copyright © 2008 Greentech Media, Inc. All rights reserved.
    Last edited by Zephyr; August 22nd, 2008 at 04:25 AM.

  4. #34

    Default Crossbreeds of Land Vehicles - Aptera (Official Website)

    Crossbreeds of Land Vehicles:
    Motor-cycle and Motor Car All in One


    The Aptera was designed from the ground up as an electric vehicle, and later as an extended range electric vehicle. After building the proof-of-concept Mk-0, we hired the automotive design firm, 'eleven', to help us further develop the concept vehicle. The 'eleven' team, led by Jason Hill and Nathan Armstrong, made great strides in the development of the Aptera's body styling, interior design, and structural engineering. Meanwhile, we refined the Aptera's shape to maximize

    Based on our wheel layout and our weight, the Aptera Typ-1 is registered as a motorcyle.
    In fact, Aptera is a motorcycle manufacturer registered with DOT and CA DMV. This means, among other things, that we are able to issue VIN's. Our 'world identifier number' is '5WT', so all of our VIN's begin with '5WT'. Knowing the public perception of motorcycle safety, we made the decision to make safety a fundamental part of the design of our vehicles. For example, the Typ-1 roof is designed to EXCEED rollover strength requirements spelled out in FMVSS 216 for passenger vehicles. The doors EXCEED the strength requirement spelled out in FMVSS 214. We decided not just to meet many of the specs for passenger vehicles, which are set above and beyond the requirements for motorcycles, but we chose to exceed them whenever possible. Just a few of the many parts of the safety systems on the Typ-1 are airbag-in seatbelt technology, a front subframe and a firewall that redirect energy around the occupants.

    Crash Testing
    Aptera has been working quietly with CD-Adapco and ABAQUS for several months, conducting frontal offset crash test simulations. Using these incredibly powerful tools, we are continually refining and testing our vehicles in software, performing numerous 'virtual crashes' on computers. Our next step is to corroborate the data with live crash tests.

    Electric & Gasoline Hybrid
    The Typ-1 uses a commoditized, 'ruggedized' 3-phase motor controller designed for vehicular applications, and a 3-phase motor made for us by a company here in Southern California. The rear drive suspension, and the drive reduction, are all designed and made by Aptera. Since the Typ-1e (electric) and the Typ-1h (series plug in hybrid) have different battery needs, this may result in different battery manufacturers for the two models. The Typ-1e is designed to use a 10 KWh pack, while the Typ-1h uses a smaller pack. The cycles and DOD are different for both applications. We will announce further information regarding the battery lifespan and warranty policy well before we begin manufacturing the Typ-1 next October.

    Diesel or Gasoline? Our first prototype, the Mk-0, was a parallel hybrid Diesel and achieved an average of 230 MPG at a steady state of 55 MPH. This was pure Diesel/mechanical drive with no electric assist. Diesel is attractive for its Carnot efficiency and the increased enthalpy of Diesel fuel vs gasoline. However, diesel contains lots of unburned hydrocarbons and NOX compounds, and it's impossible to get a small Diesel engine certified for emissions in California. Therefore, the typ-h uses a small, water-cooled EFI Gasoline engine with closed loop oxygen feedback and cataly tic converter. This engine is coupled to a lightweight 12KW starter/generator. It's very clean and quiet.

    The real deal about Aptera's Mileage
    With the All Electric Aptera, it is very easy to figure out the mileage range. The mileage is determined by the distance you can drive, under normal circumstances, until the batteries are effectively drained. In the case of the first Aptera typ-1e, we have calculated the range to be about 120miles.

    With the Plug-in Electric Hybrid version of the Aptera(typ-1h) the mileage of the vehicle is difficult to describe with one number. For example, the Typ-1h can drive 40 to 60 miles on electric power alone. Perhaps for such a trip, the engine may only be duty-cycled for a few seconds or minutes. This would produce a fantastic number, an incredible number that, though factually true, would have no useful context, i.e. it's just a point on a graph.

    An asymptotic decaying exponential is an accurate way to describe the fuel mileage of the Typ-1h. For example driving say, 50 miles, one might calculate a MPG number that's 2 or 3 times higher, say, 1000 MPG. As battery energy is depleted, the frequency of the engine duty cycle is increased. More fuel is used. at 75 miles, the MPG might be closer to 400 MPG. Again, we're using battery energy mostly, but turning the engine on more and more. Just over 100 miles we're just over 300 MPG, and just beyond 120 miles, we're around 300 MPG.

    So why pick a number at 120 miles? Well, it's more than double of most available plug-in hybrid ranges that achieve over 100 MPG. It's three times the distance of the typical American daily commute. It's a meaningful distance that represents the driving needs of 99% of Americans on a daily basis. Sure, it's asymptotic, after 350-400 miles it eventually plummets to around 130 MPG at highway speeds where it will stay all day until you plug it back in and charge it up.

    © Aptera Motors 2007

  5. #35

    Default Crossbreeds of Land Vehicles - Popular Mechanics Test Drive Text

    This is often cited as the most read article on this "trike". No way to confirm it statistically. I have placed the video of the test drive in a subsequent post.

    Aptera's Super-MPG Electric Typ-1 e: Exclusive Video Test Drive

    PM [Popular Mechanics] hits the streets and gets looked at more than ever before, then heads to the shop for first-look details on a futuristic car so efficient it’ll make your jaw drop. The good news? It’s coming next year.

    By Ben Stewart
    Popular Mechanics
    December 21, 2007

    Three hundred miles per gallon and a Jetsons-style look are enough to get anyone excited. But ever since the word got out on it last month, Aptera’s innovative Typ-1 three-wheeler has been the target of relentless theorizing and conjecture across the Web. Is it real? Does it have what it takes to be a practical vehicle for daily transport? Is it stable enough to drive? Does it even actually drive? Well we wondered some of those things, too, so we scouted out if a drivable prototype really exists.

    It does.

    This week we visited Aptera’s headquarters in Carlsbad, Calif., and became the very first outside of the company to hit the street in the Typ-1 e. And, as you can see from the video of our 20-mile test drive above, we’re impressed.

    Aptera has two innovative models that are almost production-ready at $30,000 and below: for next year, the all-electric, 120-mile-range Typ-1 e that we drove; and, by 2009, the range-extended series gasoline Typ-1 h, which Aptera says will hit 300 mpg. A more conventional third model, called “Project X” or perhaps Typ-2, is now in the design phase, with plans for a four-wheeled chassis and seating up for to five passengers.

    For now, though, the Typ-1 will certainly do. Check out a full gallery for the inside scoop on all the specs from the shop and the street …

    The Typ-1’s exposed chassis shows how the company has taken inspiration from aircraft, boats and high-performance cars. For durability as well as weight and cost savings, the majority of the Typ-1 is constructed from a top and bottom advanced composite structures bonded together along the midsection. With the top and bottom weighing in at a mere 160 and 180 pounds, respectively, the entire vehicle sits at approximately 1480 pounds today.

    The chassis has steel reinforcements in key areas: at the roll hoop, along the bottom of the windshield, in the doors (for side impact protection) and, of course, in the front subframe (for the suspension system as well as the engine and battery cradle).

    On the all-electric model, the battery pack lives in the center space of the subframe. A tiny gasoline internal combustion engine in the hybrid models shares that space. In fact, this chassis has part of the hybrid’s exhaust, which you can see just below and to the left of the subframe.

    The rear-drive wheel is mounted to a steel swing arm similar to that of motorcycle—but with a design optimized to handle the Aptera’s loads. The rear wheel has 3 in. of up travel and 2 in. of droop.

    A belt drive system connects to an electric motor that has regenerative braking to help charge the battery pack. The tires on the prototype are the same 165/65R14 tires from the Honda Insight.

    The Typ-1 e is expected to have a target range of 120 miles per charge. A ful1 recharge of the pack will take about 4 to 6 hours with a standard 110-volt outlet. Aptera’s team is still evaluating lithium phosphate battery packs from a few suppliers, so the final specs of the 10-kWh batteries remain confidential. (The hybrid model will use a smaller battery pack.)

    This wall of equipment is part of the battery test station. Twin super capacitors augment the battery pack for when you neeed quick boosts of power (think passing stupefied fellow drivers on the highway).

    Think the Typ-1 looks funny? Well its shape is designed for maximum aero efficiency—the coefficient of drag is an astounding 0.11. Aptera founder and CEO Steve Fambro says sticking your hand out the window of an average car driving 55 mph creates more drag than the Aptera’s entire body.

    The prototype’s wheel skirts may be modified in production for better aerodynamic performance, as well as for front-wheel accessibility. The front windshield is laminated safety glass, and so are the side windows. But the production car could use polycarbonate for the side windows, saving additional weight.

    Aptera’s cabin comes furnished with sustainable EcoSpun materials on the dash, door panels and seats. You can toggle a small switch between the seats for Park, Drive, Neutral and Reverse.

    Cooler still: the Typ-1 e uses a rearview system with three cameras that display images on small dash panels where analog gauges would normally sit. (Traditional rearview mirrors will still probably make it to production as well.)

    The vehicle’s vital information (speed, battery life, etc.) is displayed on one of these screens, too. The large central screen, meanwhile, houses a navigation and audio system.

    Aptera’s climate-control components are downsized from that of normal cars. That’s because the roof-mounted solar panel powers the A/C system when the vehicle is resting. It then pipes hot cabin air out through twin exhaust ports at the rear of the vehicle. The panels can also help charge the battery pack. The clamshell trunk can hold 15.9 cu.-ft. of cargo.

    Swing open the gullwing doors, and you soon realize that getting inside the Aptera is like getting inside an exotic car. You slide your backside into the seat first, then swing your legs inside. Once you’re strapped in, the driving position is slightly reclined—and very comfortable, thanks to the tilted steering wheel.

    The seats on this prototype are like those on a concept car—a little too hard and unsupportive. For production, Aptera will put in more traditional seats, plus windows that actually roll down. Typ-1 will also have a provision for a child’s seat mounted in the center of the vehicle behind the two front seats.

    Turn the dial to the “D” position, and the Aptera accelerates like many other pure EVs, with a constant rush of torque. The powertrain pulls strongly up to 50 mph or so (the fastest the streets on our route would allow). Interestingly, when you floor the accelerator, there’s a moment when the reareand jacks up slightly as the torque is applied. It’s a slight feeling, as it is on some shaft-drive motorcycles—and it’s kind of fun. It makes the acceleration feel stronger than it is.

    Our 20-mile test drive had a few higher-speed corners. And even while we were exceeding the street’s speed limit by a good margin, Aptera’s prototype felt stable and planted. The non-assisted rack and pinion steering takes a little muscle when parking (as most cars do); once you’re up to speed, however, Typ-1 e feels quick and direct.

    The vehicle rides much like a soft sports coupe—composed but not overly stiff. Step on the non-power brakes, and they do require a bit of leg muscle. But they also stop Aptera’s car quickly. All of these calibrations will likely improve and evolve as the car develops. After all, this is a prototype.

    The view through the windshield is panoramic. But it’s easy to forget that there are two front wheels sticking out 16 in. past the bodywork. We kept far away from right-side curbs until we got used to the wheel placement.

    The large front windshield lets you see everyone and everything. And in this car, what you see is everyone staring back at you: Aptera’s three-wheeler attracted more attention than anything we’ve ever driven—anything. People will roll down their windows at every stoplight and want to know what this weirdly futuristic thing is. If you’re parked, they swarm the car. It’s really a lot of fun.

    The rearview cameras provide a good indication of what’s going on behind you, but the Aptera does have a bit of a blind spot—so it takes some practice and planning to pass. And that was especially true for us, since this is a $1-million prototyp

    Since the Aptera is a three-wheeler, you don’t need a motorcycle license to drive one (even though it’s technically classified as a bike). And since it has a roof, you don’t need a helmet either.

    For now, Aptera’s plan is to first sell cars only in California, with distributors in San Diego, Los Angeles and Menlo Park. But they’ll also have a fleet of Dodge Sprinter biodiesel service trucks to maintain customer cars and provide quick-charge service.

    Fambro says Aptera only needs to sell 300 vehicles to make the company profitable. So far the company has over 580 orders for the $27,000 Typ-1 e and the $30,000 Typ-1 h. Pilot production is set to begin with 30 Typ-1 e vehicles next year, though eventually Aptera expects to build 2000 vehicles annually. Sign us up for a long-term test.

    Copyright © 2008 Hearst Communications, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  6. #36

    Default Crossbreeds of Land Vehicles - Videos on Aptera

    Videos on Aptera

    Popular Mechanics’ Road Test

    To Access YouTube Video


    Runtime 06:25

    Aptera guided tour: Introduction

    To Access YouTube Video


    Runtime 02:24

  7. #37

    Default Crossbreeds of Land Vehicles - Aptera Image Gallery

    Aptera Gallery of Images

    Concept Cars

    Left - Early Version (Actual); Right - Evolving into Aerodynamic Version (Rendering)

    left - Crunch Gear; right - Gawker

    3D Scale Model of Aerodynamic Version

    Courtesy Gawker

    Street Version

    IT Blog

    Coutesy gearcrave


    Popular Mechanics

  8. #38

    Default Motorised Tricycles - Aerorider becomes Ballard HYSUN3000

    Motorised Tricycles (Trikes)

    Aerorider / HYSUN3000

    Aerorider: Low Emission Commuter

    by Warren McLaren
    Treehugger - Cars & Transportation
    10.21.05 / Sydney, Australia

    The photo would suggest some slick new concept car to excite the revheads. But look closely at the wheels and you see that it’s pedal pushers who are more likely to get a racing pulse The Aerorider is a fully enclosed (and ventilated) semi-recumbent trike that comes an electric-assist drive. Combining the 17Ah 36Volt DC SLA (Sealed Lead Acid) battery power, with the 7 speed bicycle internal hub, you can attain speeds of 45 km/h (28mph), with the battery giving a range of 25 - 50 km. In Europe this classifies the Aerorider as a moped. In the US the motor can be limited to a 20mph maximum to retain ‘bicycle’ status. Conceived as “clean and efficient propulsion” assisted commuting, the Aerorider is a cut or two above many trikes. iIt has front and rear lights and indicators, rear view mirrors. windscreen wipers, a tacho and speedo, bucketseat and headrest. And it can store 120 Litres of luggage too. All this does not add up to mere pocket money.

    Your wallet will need to be fattened up with € 7.000 for the basic model and its SAL battery, more for the significantly lighter 30 cell NiMH battery. Yet it’s exceptional streamlined detailing saw the Dutch designed Aerorider adapted for the European Hysun project. Who managed to get one to travel 3,000 km (1,900 mile) on just 3.3kg (7.25 lb) of hydrogen. And for this it won a special award at the Fuel Cell Congress (“f-cell 2005”) held in Stuttgart, Germany last month.

    © 2008

  9. #39

    Default Motorised Tricycles - Aerorider / HYSUN3000 Schematic

    Aerorider / HYSUN3000

    ....................Fuel Cell System............................................ ......Hydrogen Tanks........................................Super Caps.....................................E-Motor..........
    ..............1,2 kW, Power Electronics....................................... .....2 x 39l, 350 bar.......................................44 Wh / 60V......................................3 kW............


    The basic contruction is a recumbent bike. Its aerodynamic shape is optimised. The value of the aerodynamic resistance cw is 0,15. The weight is reduced dramatically by using carbon fiber reinforced plastics.

    Fuel Cell:

    The heart of the vehicle is a PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) - Fuel Cell. Its nominal output power is 1,2 kW. Its efficiency is appr. 60 %. That is a big advantage compared with the appr. 35 % efficiency of an internal combustion engine based on fossil fuels. The Lithium-Ion-Battery complements the fuel cell as a power buffer. Fuel Cell and battery are building a hybrid system.


    The 2 kg hydrogen is stored in carbon fiber reinforced aluminium pressure vessels. The volume of 78l is stored with a pressure of 350 bar.


    The Electric Traction Motor of the Hysun3000 has a power of 3kW.


  10. #40


    Thanks for the post about the Aptera. Fascinating. I was not aware of this car.

    Funny, as you probably have seen, 3 wheeled work vehicles are still a common sight on city streets here in Italy. The most famous brand also begins with the letters Ap.... the Ape:

  11. #41


    ^ A wasp in Ape's clothing? Weren't these once called Vespas?

  12. #42
    Chief Antagonist Ninjahedge's Avatar
    Join Date
    Sep 2003


    It may be exciting, but I do not see wide acceptance of these machines in the US anytime soon. they look to different, not just in size. The screens instead of the analog gages, the bubble/teardrop shape, the plain flat dash/interior.

    The only real thing keeping vehicles like this from making any significant inroad in the US is thatmost people would feel uncomfortable being seen in one.

    Sometimes when progressive designers think, they either fail, or refuse to acnowledge who their audience is. Or, rather, should be.
    Last edited by Ninjahedge; May 19th, 2008 at 10:14 AM.

  13. #43


    Ablarc: The Ape ("bee" in English) is made by Piaggio. They also make the Vespa ("wasp") the famous motorbike.


    In 1974 another start-up company was poised to launch a 3 wheeled car called the Dale.

    The story behind the Dale is fascinating. At one time there was even rumour that the saga would be made into a Hollywood film. Certainly all of the elements are there.

    The car:

    Believe me, this is a must read (wikipedia):

    The Dale, designed by Dale Clift, was a prototype three-wheeled two-seater automobile announced in 1974. It was powered by an 850 cc air-cooled engine. It had an estimated 70 mpg (US) (3.4 L/100 km/84 mpg imp) fuel economy and a $2,000 (in 1974 U.S. dollars) price.

    The brainchild of Geraldine Elizabeth Carmichael, it was to be followed by a $2,450 car called the Revelle that would give 50 MPG, and an eight-seater station wagon, Vanagon, for the same amount that would deliver 40 mpg (US) (5.9 L/100 km/48 mpg imp). All of these vehicles were to be three-wheelers. The company behind this was Twentieth Century Motor Car Corporation.

    Carmichael, 37 (in 1974), was said to be widow of a NASA structural engineer and a mother of five. 6-foot (1.8 m) tall, and 200 lb (91 kg) in weight, she was believed to be a farm girl from Indiana. In reality, Mrs. Carmichael was a transsexual, born Jerry Dean Michael.

    The Dale prototype was built by Dale Clift and the project was marketed by Carmichael. Much of the interest in the Dale had been as a result of the 1973 oil crisis and higher economy automobiles like the Dale was believed by some to be a solution to the oil crunch. Speaking to reporter Dan Jedlicka of Chicago Sun-Times in November 1974, Mrs Carmichael said she was on the way to taking on General Motors or any other car manufacturer for that matter. She said she had millions of dollars in backing "from private parties", and also talked of a 150,000 sq ft (14,000 m²) assembly plant in Burbank, California and over 100 employees on the rolls.

    "By eliminating a wheel in the rear, we saved 300 pounds and knocked more than $300 from the car's price. The Dale is 190 inches long, 51 inches high, and weighs less than 1,000 pounds", said Mrs. Carmichael. She maintained that the car's lightness did not affect its stability or safety. The low center of gravity always remained inside the triangle of the three wheels making it nearly impossible for it to tip over. She also went on record to say that she drove it into a wall at 30 miles per hour (48 km/h) and there was no structural damage to the car (or her). She said the Dale was powered by a thoroughly revamped BMW two-cylinder motorcycle, which turned out 40 horsepower (30 kW) and would hit 85 miles per hour (137 km/h). She expected sales of 88,000 cars in the first year and 250,000 in the second year.

    None of the three vehicles (Dale, Revelle or Vanagon) were ever believed to have been manufactured apart from two prototype vehicles, and only one of those was able to run under its own power. It is alleged that there were rumors of fraud and the authorities began to investigate.

    Clift said he still believed in the project and that he would receive $3 million in royalties once the Dale went into production. In all, he received $1,001, plus a $2,000 check, which bounced.

    Elizabeth Carmichael went into hiding and was featured in an episode of Unsolved Mysteries which detailed the fraud behind the Dale as well as the fact Carmichael was wanted for fraud. Elizabeth Carmichael was found working under an alias in a flower shop and was arrested shortly after the episode's airing.

    Elizabeth Carmichael, as a result, went to prison.

    Last edited by Fabrizio; May 16th, 2008 at 04:00 PM.

  14. #44

    Default Motorised Tricycles - Aerorider / HYSUN3000 European Tour

    Aerorider / HYSUN3000

    European Tour:

    Testing Prototype; Visiting Expos and Fairs; Test Drives; Striving for World Record; etc.

    The prototype in the wind tunnel

    Thanks to the aid of Daimler Chrysler the HYSUN3000 was tested in the wind tunnel the 26th of September 2003. Film teams of the ZDF and fechnermedia accompanied these tests.

    The goal was to identify the influence of modifications on the chassis to the aerodynamics of the vehicle and to optimize the cw-value. The airflow was visualized with the aid of haze and filaments. The speed parameter was between 60 and 100 km/h.

    The following modifications were tested:

    • Change of the wheelbase
    • With and without Finn
    • Covering of the wheels
    • Variation of the air in- and outlets (feeding of the air to the fuel cell to the driver)
    • Different installations of exterior mirrors and blinkers

    On the bases of these examinations we could collect various experiences, which we are going to use for the further simulation. The cw-value is already at 0,15 - a satisfying result. In the case of side wind it will even be more reduced.

    Review of the H2 Expo in Hamburg

    The exposition of the Hysun3000 on the H2-Expo was a big success. It was ideal to get in contact with interested people and optional sponsors. The interest of the visitors was great. The enthusiasm was to feel on the place.

    Peter Rehag, the Hamburg senator for environmental affairs and Simone Probst, German Minister for environmental affairs, were also visiting our stand. They did a test drive and convinced themselves that this record drive is possible.

    Visit of the Fachhochschule Esslingen in Nabern

    The Fachhochschule Esslingen (FHTE) will support us in the development and optimization of the body of the Hysun3000.

    Four students will solve technical details like the air vent for the fuel cell module and the way of boarding.

    A further group will develop a proper gear which copes easily with uphill and even rides during the tour.

    A third group will create a simulation of the driving dynamic.

    Therefore we`d like to thank Prof. Dr. Panik, Prof. Wolfmaier, Prof. Gabel and Prof. Gipser for their engagement.

    Visit of the Hannover Fair

    We could socialise with many companies

    In order to realise the communication between vehicle and accompanying vehicle or main station via Bluetooth.

    A new sensor is chosen for speed measurement

    A light-weight material for the body was found

    Cooperation with Fraunhofer-Technologie-Developmentgroup (TEG) in Stuttgart

    Mr. Mark Ital from the TEG gives support for the design of the operation system, the fin and the body gap for the wheel. We will also get support for the lights. Therefore, we have split an order to TEG.

    Visit of Bike-Fair in Germersheim, Germany 24.04.04

    First inspection of the new vehicle body design which will be used for the Hysun3000. The body is produced by Aerorider in series using the vacuum technology.

    With Thorax we discussed about the suspension of the front wheel, the mounting of the rear wheel-drive and its damping. Special thanks to Axel and Ralf Conrad for the successful cooperation.
    A new integral monocoque truss with rectangular shape will be stabilized by an Aluminium sheet. This new design will cause a higher stability. The new truss will be assembled in the Hysun3000.

    Attendance in the kindergarden Egelsberg in Weilheim u.T. (30.06.2004)

    Environmental protection and alternative of driving drives are also for the recent generation an interesting topic. The Hysun team visited the kindergarden Egelsberg in Weilheim u.T., where 3 groups á approx. 20 children had their first contact with the Hysun3000. They could have a look at the vehicle close-by, admire the technic and learn to understand the technology, sit inside and get so a first driving feeling. In easy and understandable way the technic has been explained very descriptive by Rolf-Peter Essling that the Hysun3000 is driven by a gas which is called hydrogen. It can’t be seen, smelled or touched - however its energy is used. For illustration they received multicoloured balloons filled with helium. The children brim over with enthusiasm for the vehicle, particularly as it doesn’t produce any harmful exhausts and they looked for a long time to find the exhaust pipe of the Hysun3000. When it was finally discovered, the children were completely surprised that only water comes out as exhaust. Again we approached a little our goal to make also the recent generation attentive on pollution free energy systems. The children were pointed out new ways and alternatives for a carefully handling with energy and its use for their future.

    The HYSUN3000-tour will start soon: the 3000-km-record-drive will begin on 7th of September in Berlin

    The HYSUN3000 will start its 3000-km-record-drive on 7th of September in Berlin and will reach Barcelona on 23rd of September.
    Several stops with press conferences are planned in

    • Berlin (7.9.)
    • Schwerin (8.9.)
    • Hamburg (9.9)
    • Osnabrück (10.9.)
    • Petten/Amsterdam (11.9.)
    • Cologne (13.9.)
    • Mainz (14.9.)
    • Freiburg (15.9.)
    • Besancon (17.9.)
    • Lyon (18.9.)
    • Marseille (19.9.)
    • Perpignan (20.9.)
    • Barcelona (22.9.)

    State Secretary Simone Probst represents Ministry of the Environment during HYSUN-Start in Berlin (07.09.2004)

    State Secretary Simone Probst represents the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and will attend the press conference on 7th of September in Berlin, where the opening of the HYSUN3000-record drive will take place. The record drive is under the patronage of the Ministry. Simone Probst is Physicist and since 1998 she acts as parliamentary State Secretary at the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety.

    Last test drives before approval by TÜV on 27th of August

    The HYSUN3000 comes to its last test drives in order to check the electronics. On Friday, 27th of August, TÜV Rheinland will permit the HYSUN3000 for road traffic. The prototype of HYSUN3000 has already the permission for the road traffic and completed several test drives on the road. The vehicle for the record drive will be heavier and more stable and will be the only vehicle driving from Berlin to Barcelona.

    The HYSUN3000 is fuelled with hydrogen (30.08.2004)

    The HYSUN3000 has been prepared for its record drive and has been filled with gaseous hydrogen under a pressure of 350bar. The tank volume consists of 78l.

    TÜV gave the official approval for road admission of HYSUN3000

    The approval for road service for HYSUN3000 given by TÜV Rheinland is the first in the category of a fuel cell vehicle with an empty weight of 187 kilograms. The max. speed is restricted to 80 km/h. The HYSUN´s approval for road admission is the success of the HYSUN-Team developing the vehicle self dependently and complimentarily.

    World record with HYSUN3000, Freiburg 14.9.2004

    The HYSUN3000 is the first fuel cell vehicle of the world with official approval and homologation for road service, passing a distance of 1643 kilometers with just one tank filling of hydrogen. The consumption of hydrogen of the HYSUN3000 is 110g per 100km and the equivalence of gasoline is 0.41 Liters per 100km.

    The current results point out, passing the distance of 3000km with 3kg hydrogen is a realistic target.

    Second World record with HYSUN3000, Barcelona 23.09.2004

    The HYSUN3000 is the first fuel cell vehicle with official approval and homologation for road service of the world passing a distance of 3000km with 3,3kg hydrogen consumption in total. The vehicle kept its consumption of 110g hydrogen per 100km throughout the entire tour (equivalent to 0.4l gasoline per 100 km).

    Therewith the HYSUN-team has achieved its main goal with the fuel cell vehicle: the distance of 3000 km was passed with only 3,265kg of hydrogen.

    HYSUN3000 on World Mobility Forum in Stuttgart

    The World Mobility Forum took place from 1.-3. of February 2005 with the topic 'China and the Asian region'. Decision-makers from all sectors of society and science discussed at the World Mobility Forum in order to address the burning issues of mobility worldwide and to indicate how they should be tackled in the near and distant future. Also the team of HYSUN3000 presented the vehicle and project in Stuttgart.

    HYSUN3000 at Thüringen Exhibition

    Der HYSUN3000 was at the Thüringen Exhibition in Erfurt from 26.02.-06.03.2005.

    Prime Minister of Thüringen Althaus (photo) sat into the HYSUN3000 and projekt manager Frieder Herb (photo left) explained the basic skills of driving the vehicle. Professor Bley (mid of photo) - joint founder of the Solar-Village Kettenmannshausen e.V.- was also interested in the vehicle.

    The Thüringen Exhibition is the biggest exhibition in Thüringen and is targeted on demanding visitors.

    HYSUN3000 at f-cell symposium in Stuttgart

    After coming back back from Barcelona, the HYSUN3000 was presented on the 'f-cell' Symposium in Stuttgart (28th of September). The forum adresses europe-wide manufacturer and user of fuel cells. Project Manager Frieder Herb referred about the results of the tour. The project met with approval under the experts.

    The 'f-cell' Symposium associated with a fair takes place since 4 years. In the year 2004 more than 32 exhibtors and approx. 500 international visitors attended the event.

    HYSUN3000 presentation at VDI - 18.03.05 in Stuttgart

    Frieder Herb and Jörg Schweigard lectured about the record drive of the HYSUN3000 at the VDI-event organised by the Württembergischer Ingenieursverein e.V. (WIV) / working package for society and technologies. The event took place on 18th of March 2005 in Stuttgart-Vaihingen. More than 70 people attended the lecture and were very interested into the project.

    The HYSUN3000 was to view in the VDI-building in Stuttgart-Vaihingen until 21st of March.

    HYSUN3000 at Hannover Fair from 10.04.-15.04.2005

    The HYSUN3000 was to view at the Hannover Fair at the booth of IGUS GmbH, a sponsor of the HYSUN-project. Sincere thanks to IGUS GmbH for the exhibition of the vehicle. Many visitors were attracted by the HYSUN3000.

    European Fuel Cell Forum 2005 with HYSUN3000

    The Lucerne FUEL CELL FORUM 2005 was a highlight of the European fuel cell year. Venue place was again the new 'Kultur- und Kongresszentrum Luzern' on the waterfront of the Lake of Lucerne in the heart of Switzerland.

    Two parallel conferences, a fuel cell product exhibition and an optional fuel cell tutorial are offered under the same roof. There was unlimited access to both symposia and the exhibition. Many exhibitors and prospective customers attended this important event in order to bring forward the seminal fuel cell technology.

    Aaward 'region's sights' for HYSUN-Team

    The „Forum Region Stuttgart“ offered an event 'Tour of Know-how' with focus of 'energy' from 29.07. until 31.07.2005. Finally the Forum honoured the HYSUN-Team for its project, the construction of the HYSUN3000 and its Europe-wide tour in order to inform the public about the fuel cell technology.

    With the award 'region’s sights' the Forum emphasized the meaning of this engagement.

    f-cell award for HYSUN3000 in Stuttgart

    In Germany f-cell is one of the most important events for fuel cell and hybride technologies. f-cell offers a broad program with an international Symposium and a trade fair covering the total topic. ...


  15. #45

    Default Motorised Tricycles - Videos on Aerorider / HYSUN3000

    Videos on Aerorider / HYSUN3000

    Danish Television Personality:
    Tests Aerorider on Damp Roads during an Overcast Day,
    then Examines Interior Components while in a Garage

    To Access YouTube Video


    Runtime 03:43
    This reads: "The worlds first sustainable aerodynamic
    and fun hybrid of electric engine and muscle
    ... this is the future of alternative vehicles."

    To Access YouTube Video


    Runtime 01:40

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