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Thread: Alternative Cars/Vehicles

  1. #46

    Default Motorised Tricycles - Aerorider / HYSUN3000 Image Gallery

    Aerorider /HYSUN3000 Gallery of Images

    Courtesy Sustainable Design Update


    Courtesy Metaefficient

    Courtesy Ready to Ride - Mind. Body. Bike.

  2. #47

    Default Solar Concept Cars/Vehicles - GM Sunraycer and the Story of Beattie McCready

    Solar Concept Cars/Vehicles
    Solar Cars or Solar Vehicles are usually Electric Cars or Vehicle
    that are charged and/or re-charged primarily,
    if not exclusively, from the sun's ultraviolet rays.

    GM Sunraycer

    The historic General Motors Sunraycer was created in the late 1980s for the first worldwide solar-vehicle challenge race, held in Australia. According to one account: the GM Sunraycer “…won the 1,950-mile World Solar Challenge in 1987, finishing more than 620 miles ahead of the nearest competitor.” [from Smithsonian Catalog] They could have also added that the Sunraycer came in a full two days before the next competitor.

    Historical Photograph of Sunraycer

    Smithsonian Institution

    Although the GM Sunraycer won that race, the effort represented more than just a vehicle created for a single contest. It was one the first seriously pursued project to create a solar vehicle by a major American automobile manufacturer.

    Pre-Charging the Sunraycer Batteries

    Electrick Publications and NJK

    BTW, in the interest of more accurate disclosure – aside from General Motors proper – GM Hughes Electronics, AeroVironment, Aerodynamics, and several other GM Divisions and Official GM Suppliers also contributed.

    To place a face on an endless list of companies and divisions of companies, we turn to the spirit behind them as represented by Paul Beattie McCready. No … I am not making this name up.

    - Zephyr

    Paul B. MacCready
    Chairman, AeroVironment Inc.
    Monrovia, CA

    Paul MacCready was born in New Haven, Connecticut, in 1925. During his adolescence he was a serious model airplane enthusiast, who set many records for experimental craft. At age 16, he soloed in powered planes. In World War II, he flew in the U.S. Navy flight training program.

    In 1943 MacCready graduated from Hopkins School in New Haven. In 1947 he received his Bachelor of Science in physics from Yale University. His interest in flight grew to include gliders. He won the 1948, 1949 and 1953 U.S. National Soaring Championships, pioneered high-altitude wave soaring in the United States; and in 1947 was the first American in 14 years to establish an international soaring record. (The 1999 National Soaring Convention of the Soaring Society of America was dedicated to him.) He represented the United States at contests in Europe four times, becoming International Champion in France in 1956, the first American to achieve this goal.

    During the decade 1946-56, MacCready worked on sailplane development, soaring techniques, meteorology, and invented the Speed Ring Airspeed Selector that is used by glider pilots worldwide to select the optimum flight speed between thermals (commonly called the "MacCready Speed"). Concurrently, he earned a master's degree in physics in 1948 and a Ph.D. in aeronautics in 1952 from the California Institute of Technology, and in 1950-51 managed a weather modification program in Arizona. He founded Meteorology Research Inc., that became a leading firm in weather modification and atmospheric science research. He pioneered the use of small instrumented aircraft to study storm interiors and performed many of the piloting duties.

    In 1971, MacCready started AeroVironment, Inc., a diversified company headquartered in Monrovia, California. The company provides services, developments, and products in the fields of alternative energy, power electronics, and energy efficient vehicles for operation on land and in air and water. Products include environmental instrumentation, surveillance aircraft, and power electronic systems for stationary and mobile uses. MacCready is Chairman of the Board of AeroVironment, and active in all the technology areas.

    MacCready became internationally known in 1977 as the "father of human-powered flight" when his Gossamer Condor made the first sustained, controlled flight by a heavier-than-air craft powered solely by its pilot's muscles. For the feat he received the $95,000 Henry Kremer Prize. Two years later, his team created the Gossamer Albatross, another 70-pound craft with a 96-foot wingspan that, with DuPont sponsorship, achieved a human-powered flight across the English Channel. That flight, made by "pilot-engine" Bryan Allen, took almost three hours. It won the new Kremer prize of $213,000, at the time the largest cash prize in aviation history.

    Subsequently, the AeroVironment team led by MacCready developed, under DuPont sponsorship, two more aircraft, this time powered by the sun. In 1980, the Gossamer Penguin made the first climbing flight powered solely by sunbeams. In 1981, the rugged Solar Challenger was piloted 163 miles from Paris, France to England, at an altitude of 11,000 feet. These solar-powered aircraft were built and flown to draw world attention to photovoltaic cells as a renewable and non-polluting energy source for home and industry and to demonstrate the use of DuPont's advanced materials for lightweight structures.


    Paul MacCready speaking at Caltech;
    MacCready inventions including: a solar-powered airplane;
    the cab of a human-powered airplane;
    and a wind turbine*

    In 1983, his team built the 70-pound, human-powered (with on-board battery energy storage) Bionic Bat, partly to vie for new Kremer speed prizes and partly to explore new technologies leading toward practical, long-duration, unmanned vehicles and quiet, slow-speed, piloted aircraft. In 1984, the Bionic Bat won two of the speed prizes.

    Starting in 1984, the team developed a large radio-controlled, wing-flapping, flying replica of the largest animal that ever flew: the long-extinct pterodactyl Quetzalcoatlus northropi, whose giant wings spanned 36 feet. This QN replica became the lead "actor" in a 1986 wide-screen IMAX film titled "On the Wing", a film depicting the interrelation between the developments of biological flight and aircraft. The film and the QN replica were sponsored by Johnson Wax and the National Air and Space Museum.

    Recent "cover story" type aircraft of his AeroVironment groups start with the 100 foot remotely-piloted solar powered Pathfinder that, in 1997, reached the stratospheric altitude of 71,500'. In 1998, the 120 foot Pathfinder Plus reached over 80,000 feet (the highest any powered airplane has maintained level flight), and the 206 foot Centurion, designed for 100,000 feet, started low altitude tests. The Centurion then evolved into the 247 foot prototype Helios. This underwent low altitude tests in 1999 as a step toward "near-eternal" (6 month) flights when the solar cells and the regenerative fuel cell system power the final Helios. These NASA-supported developments are steps toward non-polluting flights in the stratosphere for environmental studies and surveillance. The largest potential is for Helios to serve as an 11-mile-high "SkyTower"™ that relays multichannel wide bandwidth communications. Other widely publicized pioneering aircraft are at the other end of the size range: tiny (6" span) surveillance drones, microplanes with on-board video cameras, featuring gross weight under 2 ounces.

    His team's first land vehicle was the GM Sunraycer, for which AeroVironment provided project management, systems engineering, aerodynamics and structural design, power electronics development, as well as construction and testing for General Motors and Hughes Aircraft. In November 1987, this solar-powered car won the 1,867 mile race across Australia, averaging 41.6 mph (50 percent faster than the second place vehicle in the field of 24 contestants). The goal of the Sunraycer, in addition to winning the race, was to advance transportation technology that makes fewer demands on the earth's resources and environment, and to inspire students to become engineers. AeroVironment also helped with the GM-sponsored educational tour of the Sunraycer, spearheaded a course at Caltech on the Sunraycer engineering design (course notes were distributed in book form by SAE), and helped manage, for GM, the Sunrayce, in which solar-powered cars from 32 university groups raced from Florida to Michigan in July 1990. In January 1990, the GM Impact was introduced, a battery-powered sports car with snappy "0 to 60 mph in 8 seconds" performance. GM later turned the Impact into the production vehicle EV-1. The AV team provided the initial concept for the Impact; performed program management, systems engineering, and design of the electrical and mechanical elements; and built the vehicle, integrating the participation of a dozen GM divisions. This pioneering car became a catalyst for the present intense global developments of battery-powered and alternatively-fueled vehicles.

    Courtesy AirShip Technologies Group

    Physical Description
    19'9" long, 6'7" wide, 3'8" high. 390 pounds. Seats one person.*

    The unique vehicles produced by MacCready's teams have received international attention through exhibits, books, television documentaries, and innumerable articles and cover stories in magazines and newspapers. They, MacCready, and AeroVironment have become symbols for creativity. The Gossamer Condor is on permanent display at the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C., adjacent to the Wright Brothers' 1903 airplane and Lindbergh's Spirit of St. Louis. A film about it, "The Flight of the Gossamer Condor", won the Academy Award for Best Documentary - Short Subject in 1978. The Gossamer Albatross, after touring U.S. science museums, was for some years hung in the central atrium of the London Science Museum. Now in storage, it is slated for a forthcoming NASM facility at Dulles. The almost-identical backup vehicle, Gossamer Albatross II, was flown in the Houston Astrodome, and on a NASA research project. It now hangs at the Museum of Flight in Seattle. The Gossamer Penguin was exhibited in the U.S. Pavilion of the 1982 World's Fair in Knoxville, Tennessee. The Solar Challenger was displayed at the National Air and Space Museum, and at Expo '86, and is now at the Science Museum of Virginia in Richmond. The QN flight replica, after being on display at the National Air and Space Museum in conjunction with showing the "On the Wing" film, now rests at the Smithsonian Zoo. A full size static display version is at the Museum of Flying at Santa Monica airport. The Sunraycer is stored at the Smithsonian American History Museum, and is displayed occasionally.

    MacCready's achievements have brought him many recent honors, including:

    • Distinguished Alumni Award, 1978, California Institute of Technology
    • Collier Trophy, 1979, by the National Aeronautics Association ("awarded annually for the greatest achievement in Aeronautics and Astronautics in America"
    • Reed Aeronautical Award, 1979, by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics ("the most notable achievement in the field of aeronautical science and engineering"
    • Edward Longstreth Medal, 1979, by the Franklin Institute
    • Ingenieur of the Century Gold Medal, 1980, by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers; also the Spirit of St. Louis Medal, 1980
    • Inventor of the Year Award, 1981, by the Association for the Advancement of Invention and Innovation
    • Klemperer Award, 1981, OSTIV, Paderborn, Germany
    • I.B. Laskowitz Award, 1981, New York Academy of Science
    • The Lindbergh Award, 1982, by the Lindbergh Foundation ("to a person who contributes significantly to achieving a balance between technology and the environment")
    • Golden Plate Award, 1982, American Academy of Achievement
    • Gold Air Medal, by the Federation Aeronautique Internationale
    • Distinguished Service Award, Federal Aviation Administration
    • Public Service Grand Achievement Award, NASA
    • Frontiers of Science and Technology Award, 1986, first award in this category given by the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal
    • The "Lipper Award", 1986, for outstanding contribution to creativity, by the O-M Association (Odyssey of the Mind)
    • Guggenheim Medal, 1987, jointly by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, the Society of Automotive Engineers, and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers
    • National Air and Space Museum Trophy for Current Achievement, 1988
    • Enshrinement in The National Aviation Hall of Fame, July 1991, Dayton, Ohio
    • SAE Edward N. Cole Award for Automotive Engineering Innovation, September 1991
    • Scientist of the Year, 1992 ARCS (Achievement Rewards for College Scientists), San Diego Chapter
    • Pioneer of Invention, 1992, United Inventors Association
    • Chrysler Award for Innovation in Design, 1993
    • Honorary Member designation, American Meteorological Society, 1995
    • American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Ralph Coats Roe Medal, November 1998
    • Howard Hughes Memorial Award, Aero Club of Southern California, January 1999
    • Calstart’s 1998 Blue Sky Merit Award, February 1999
    • 1999 National Convention of the Soaring Society of America, dedicated to Paul MacCready, Feb. 1999
    • Special Achievement Award, Design News, March 1999
    • Included in Time magazine’s "The Century’s Greatest Minds" (March 29, 1999) series "on the 100 most influential people of the century"
    • Lifetime Achievement Aviation Week Laureate Award, April 1999
    • Commemorated in Palau stamp, 1 of 16 "Environmental Heroes of the 20th Century", Jan. 2000
    • Institute for the Advancement of Engineering William B. Johnson Memorial Award, Feb. 2000

    In 1999, MacCready directed prize money from the Design News Special Achievement Award to Harvey Mudd College, initiating an industry/student development of a two-legged walking robot.

    MacCready has many professional affiliations, including the National Academy of Engineering and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and Fellow status in the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, the American Meteorological Society (he is also an AMS Certified Consulting Meteorologist and a member of the AMS Council), and the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal. He is a Humanist Laureate of the Academy of Humanism. For two decades he has been International President of the International Human-Powered Vehicle Association; and in 1999 helped create the Dempsey-MacCready One Hour Distance Prize He has served on many technical advisory committees and Boards of Directors for government, industry (public and private corporations), educational institutions, and foundations; and is at present a Director of the Lindbergh Foundation and the Society for Amateur Scientists. He has a dozen patents.

    He has been awarded five honorary degrees (including Yale 1983) and made numerous commencement addresses. He has written many popular articles, and authored or co-authored over one hundred formal papers and reports in the fields of aeronautics; soaring and ultralight aircraft; biological flight; drag reduction; surface transportation; wind energy; weather modification; cloud physics; turbulence, diffusion, and wakes; equipment and measurement techniques; and perspectives on technology, efficiency, and global consequences and opportunities. He lectures widely for industry and educational institutions, emphasizing creativity and the development of broad thinking skills, and also treating issues such as future paths for energy and transportation, and the changing relationship between nature and technology.

    MacCready lives in Pasadena, California, with his wife Judy. Their three sons, all of whom were involved in the early human- and solar-powered aircraft developments, are now following their independent career paths.**


    * - Picture and/or caption do not appear on original website citation - Z.
    ** - Unfortunately, I must add this update: Paul B. MacCready died of advanced melanoma in August of 2007. RIP - Z.

  3. #48

    Default Solar Concept Cars/Vehicles - Solar Wing

    Solar Concept Cars/Vehicles

    Solar Wing:
    Aerodynamics refined


    SOLAR WING is designed like the airfoil section on an aeroplane wing to give a pleasing shape and striking look.

    Solar Wing - project team members

    Dimensions: total length 6m x 1.9m total height x 1.05m which
    Weight: body 128kg - battery 72kg (1.95kw/h) - total 200kg
    Solar Cells: Polycrystaline type, Kyocera PSF50H-361 giving 798.84W
    Motor: DC brush less DR086S /3.5Kw
    Batteries: YUASA lead-acid pack which operates @ 108V with a capacity of 1.957kw/h.

    Solar Wing - canopy open


    The team wanted to make a contribution to solving the energy problem for transport while being considerate to the environment and providing general engineering interest to the participating students. The hope is that in adult life these students will have good opportunities as a result of their experience and that the interaction between humans and nature will be better understood and integrated as an obligation to the future of the planet

    SPONSORS: Many thanks to:-

    JA-Kyosai, TSURUGI Town and KURARAY

    Solar Wing - side view

    SOURCE: Solar Wing - PV Racing Car Project

  4. #49

    Default Solar Concept Cars/Vehicles - MIT Tesseract

    Solar Concept Cars/Vehicles

    MIT Tesseract*:
    Evolution of Solar Cells

    This prototype vehicle consists of a solar array with space grade "triple-junction" solar cells,
    which are the same type solar cells used on NASA satellites.

    (BTW if you are at all interested in the name,
    Impossible World characterises the "tesseract" as an alternate name for "hypercube".
    To quote IW directly, "... tesseract is to the cube as the cube is to the square;
    or, more formally, the tesseract can be described as
    a regular convex 4-polytope whose boundary consists of eight cubical cells."
    [See IW's website on "Hypercube" for more details.])

    Courtesy MIT Education

    MIT Tesseract in 2005

    "A group of MIT students were taking out the Tesseract - a solar powered car that took third place in the 2003 World Solar Challenge in Australia - for a spin on Mount Auburn Street when a state trooper pulled them over for not displaying a license plate yesterday morning. Other problems the trooper noticed: no headlights, no rearview mirror, overly tinted windows and no windshield wipers. For the record, it also looks a little like a stealth bomber."

    Boston Herald

    Below: "MIT's solar car Tesseract ...
    crosses the border at Winnipeg, Manitoba."

    Photo courtesy / NASC

    About the solar electric vehicle team (sevt)

    The Solar Electric Vehicle Team is a recognized student organization at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, working under the auspices of the Edgerton Center. The team draws on a broad range of technical knowledge encompassing all fields of engineering and science. Team membership provides an intense educational experience which teaches practical skills impossible to communicate in the classroom environment, turning students into engineers. In addition to providing real-world design and manufacturing experience, involvement in the team develops project management and business skills. The team also gives students the opportunity to work closely with professors and members of the business community, including those on the board of consultants, when developing the vehicles.

    The MIT Solar Electric Vehicle Team sets its goals beyond just winning races. The team is dedicated to promoting alternatively powered vehicles. Members participate in seminars, lectures, museum displays, conferences dedicated to alternative energy, and numerous Earth Day and ecological fairs. Team members answer questions about electric transportation at these events as well as during race-sponsored demonstrations.

    Present vehicle: tesseract

    Tesseract is a single-seat high performance solar race car. Because we’re trying to attain highway speeds on the same power as a hairdryer, everything on the car has a necessary and specific purpose. If it isn’t essential, we leave it out. All together, the car weighs about 375 lbs without driver.

    Courtesy Sungroper Association**

    How it works

    Solar Array

    The solar array consists of 2732 space grade triple-junction solar cells. These are the same cells that NASA puts on its satellites. We use them for the same reason they do, weight is at a premium, so we want the most power per area that we can get. The cells are connected into 40 different series strings of varying length on the car to optimize collection over the curved surface of Tesseract. Immediately after the solar array, there are 12 maximum-power-point trackers, which ensure we are drawing the max power possible from our array at any given time. These also act like a power conditioner to deal with the fluctuating battery voltage.


    Tesseract is powered by a 6 hp axial flux brushless DC motor. By using and axial flux configuration, the motor is thin and flat like a pancake, and can produce large amounts of torque. Because this motor was specially designed for solar cars, it can be run in a direct-drive configuration. There is no transmission, the motor is attached directly to the hub of the rear wheel. This motor is coupled with a special controller that monitors the rotor position and fires 3 phase bursts of DC energy in sequence. This eliminates the need for brushes, a large source of energy loss. As a system, the motor and controller peak at 94% efficiency from stored electrical energy to mechanical energy at the wheels. When compared with passenger cars, which have an efficiency of about 15% from stored energy in gasoline to mechanical energy at the wheels.


    Tesseract uses 512 li-ion batteries. These are the same type of batteries found in most laptops, only laptops use 6 or 8 cells in a battery pack instead of 512. Our pack is broken down into twelve modules, which are each equivalent to a car battery, but only weigh 5 lbs each. Through an innovative pack design, we ventilate the batteries with even airflow to minimize temperature differences between the modules. Because li-ion batteries are so energy-dense, we build our own battery protection circuitry to monitor each module voltage and temperature. This data is fed into a power controller that will disconnect the batteries in case they near a dangerous operating condition.

    Chassis and suspension

    The car is held together by a chromoly steel space frame. This is employed to provide the driver with a safe roll cage while minimizing the weight of the structure. The frame weighs about 35 lbs, and is fabricated by the team. the suspension is a familiar design, double a-arms with coil-over shocks in the front, and a trailing arm with coil-over shock in the rear. It’s a car/mountain bike hybrid suspension, using lightweight bike shocks, while using steel control arms and aluminum uprights.

    Steering and brakes

    The driver controls the car with center mounted handlebars, much like that on a bicycle, that connect to a rack-and-pinion steering system. The car stops (only when necessary) with 4 mountain bike brakes on the front wheels connected to go-kart master cylinders and pedal. There are two redundant hydraulic systems so the car can still be stopped in case one system fails.


    The body of Tesseract is made of Kevlar and carbon fiber fabric, Nomex honeycomb, and epoxy resin. By laminating these together in a special process and reinforcing them properly, the shell of Tesseract weighs only 60 lbs. The body was designed for super-streamlined aerodynamics, and has been thoroughly wind tunnel tested.


    Control electronics and telemetry

    With all the subsystems of the car working, the driver has his work cut out for him — keeping the car on the road. This is because of a specially developed cruise control system developed by the team. The team’s tactical strategy is programmed into the cruise control, so the car adjusts speed according to race conditions. All the data from the car is collected over an industry standard CAN bus, and is relayed to the support crew, where the strategy team analyzes the data and picks the car’s target speed.

    Technical Specifications

    Vehicle Dimensions

    Length 4980 mm
    Width 1780 mm
    Height 960 mm
    Total Weight (With driver) 254 kg (Driver 80 kg)


    Drag Coefficient .12
    Frontal Area .85 m2


    Type 4130 chromoly steel spaceframe
    Body Materials Kevlar, carbon fiber, nomex honeycomb
    Wheel-Base 86 inches
    Wheel-Track 50 inches
    Ground Clearance 12 inches

    Mechanical Components

    Front Suspension Double a-arm, coil over shock
    Rear Suspension Trailing arm, coil over shock
    Wheels Front – GH Craft custom carbon fiber
    Tires Michelin solar car tire, 65/80-16
    Front Brakes HOPE C2 MTB calipers, 2 per wheel. Enginetics master cylinders.
    Rear Brakes regenerative
    Steering System Handlebars, rack and pinion

    Solar Array

    Manufacturer Emcore/SunCat Solar
    Emcore/SunCat Solar Cell Type Triple junction – GaInP/GaAs/Ge
    Power 1850 W
    Cell Efficiency 25 %
    Solar Surface Area 7.5 m2
    No. of Strings 40
    Weight ~15 kg
    Power Tracker
    Manufacturer AERL

    Our next project

    During summer 2007, the SEVT has been working hard on the design of our next vehicle, currently named "Eleanor." With Eleanor, we are aiming to improve upon the technology used in Tesseract. Eleanor's design is based around the regulations for our upcoming races.

    Several of the most drastic changes are detailed below:

    Seating angle

    In previous years, solar car drivers have had to lay down in their vehicles to drive. This helped to minimize the thickness of the cars, which lowered the aerodynamic drag. To bring solar cars closer to commercial passenger cars, a new regulation requires that the driver is seated upright: the seat back must be less than 27 degrees away from vertical. The SEVT has had to rethink the shape of the aerodynamic car body and the layout of items within the car in order to comply with the new rules.

    Steering wheel

    Eleanor's steering system, like Tesseract's, will use a rack-and-pinion steering mechanism to connect the driver input to the wheels. But while Tesseract's drivers used handlebars to steer, Eleanor will feature a conventional circular steering wheel.

    Parking Brake

    In the past, the SEVT has simply chocked the wheels to keep vehicles in place when stopped. This year we will be developing a mechanical parking brake that can be operated by the driver. The driver will be able to bring the car to a stop, engage the parking brake and then exit the vehicle without waiting for other team members to stabilize the car with chalks.


    * - This is also the name of a four-wheel motorcycle - the Yamaha Tesseract (more on that later) - Z.
    ** - Picture inserted, does not appear on original website citation - Z.

  5. #50

    Default Market-Ready Solar Cars/Vehicles - Venturi Astrolab

    Solar Cars/Vehicles

    Market-Ready in this case refers to a vehicle in which the Automaker has either
    set a Production Date or is already in Production.

    Venturi Astrolab

    Venturi … Astrolab … solar commuter is capable of working with very little energy … and of recharging even when in motion, and does not need to be permanently exposed to the sun in order to move. …

    Venturi is hoping for even higher yields in the years to come. The car uses liquid cooled NiMH Venturi NIV-7 batteries and enable it to be plugged into the electricity grid, making it the first electro-solar hybrid vehicle.

    World’s First Commercially-Available Electric-Solar hybrid,
    and a sporty one at that

    October 2, 2006 It’s not often we get lead stories on consecutive days from the same company (never before in fact) but French transportation futurists Venturi have done it again – this time with the first solar electric hybrid to be commercialised in the world.

    Named Astrolab (latin astro = star, labe = to take) because it takes its energy from the sun in order to move, the solar commuter is capable of working with very little energy (16 kW engine) and of recharging even when in motion, and does not need to be permanently exposed to the sun in order to move. The car’s performance is remarkably close to that of a petrol-engined vehicle as it has a top speed of 120 kmh and a minimum range of 110 km.

    To attain this level of performance while using very little energy, the Astrolab has been designed like a Formula 1 car with an ultra-light carbon monocoque chassis serving as an oversized protection cell in the event of a collision and at the same time offering a large surface for the 3.6 square metres of photovoltaic cells.

    Its profile recalls the aqua-dynamic design of great racing yachts and Venturi draws the parallel between Astrolab and a sailboat : both advance silently while making best use of the elements and both offer sensations unlike any other. Its designer Sacha Lakic describes Astrolab as “a flying wing set on four wheels.”Astoundingly, it’s not just a show car - EUR92,000 will buy you one and the first vehicles are scheduled for delivery in January, 2008. … Venturi, we salute you!

    One of the many tricks involved in the Astrolab is the efficiency of the photovoltaic cells which offer an exceptional yield of 21%, as they are covered by a film composed of nano-prisms, enabling denser concentration of solar energy. Venturi is hoping for even higher yields in the years to come. The car uses liquid cooled NiMH Venturi NIV-7 batteries and enable it to be plugged into the electricity grid, making it the first electro-solar hybrid vehicle.

    This is also the first vehicle that consumes no fossil resources in order to work (depending of course on where you live and how the electricity is made in your neck of the woods): the emissions of CO2 required for its construction will even be compensated for by Venturi’s environmental actions.

    Astrolab also opens up a new era as regards automobile architecture : light and high-profiled, it offers the rays of the sun 3.6 m2 of today’s most sophisticated photovoltaic cells (for an overall vehicle length under 4 m).

    Optimised to incorporate its solar cells, the Astrolab’s design takes into account the effect of passengers’ weight on the vehicle’s dynamic behaviour. Very light when empty, the tandem architecture makes for perfect balance, whether the vehicle is occupied by one person or two.

    All content copyright © gizmag 2003-2008

  6. #51

    Default Market-Ready Solar Cars/Vehicles - Mitsubishi i-MiEV Sport (PART 1 of 2)

    Solar Cars/Vehicles

    Mitsubishi i-MiEV Sport (Part 1 of 2)

    i-MIEV SPORT: Mitsubishi Launches
    New Electric Sports Car

    by Jorge Chapa
    November 6, 2007

    One of the most innovative electric sports cars by Mitsubishi, the i-MIEV Sport, was just shown off at the Tokyo Motor Show. This cute and sporty beetle-esque electric car comes with optional photovoltaics for solar power, and will be powered by a pack of Li-ions that will allow drivers to go about 100 miles before needing to recharge. While concept electric vehicles are released every year that never make it into production, this snappy little vehicle gives us hope for the future, because it will go into production in 2009.

    The i-MIEV (Mitsubishi innovative Electric Vehicle) is Mitsubishi’s flagship environmentally friendly vehicle. Amongst the technologies to which it is privy to, the electric plug-in lithium battery powered vehicle offers energy saving LEDs, heat absorbing glass to reduce heat gain within the vehicle and the interior components of the vehicle use plant-based resin technology developed by Mitsubishi, which they claim is environmentally friendly.

    And then, there’s the way in which the vehicle gets power. Sure, it is an in-wheel motored, plug-in vehicle, a technology which is gaining traction from most auto makers. But the i-MIEV also comes equipped with an auxiliary photovoltaic generator on the roof, a power generating fan inside the front grill and is also able to recharge its lithium battery when the car brakes, recuperating wasted energy.

    Whether or not this vehicle is what ends up on the road in 2009 remains to be seen. But it appears that Misubishi, at least in principle is commited to thinking slightly outside the box.



    After it's out of juice, it'll take around 7-hours at 200V or 14-hours at 100V to charge it back up. Most notable about this ride, however, is the proposed release date: 2009. This figure was recently moved up a year from the original 2010 projection, but unfortunately, no details surrounding a price or specific launch markets have been disclosed.



  7. #52

    Default Market-Ready Solar Cars/Vehicles - Mitsubishi i-MiEV Sport (PART 2 of 2)

    Solar Cars/Vehicles

    Mitsubishi i-MiEV Sport (Part 2 of 2)

    Jorge Chapa, Inhabitat:
    "Whether or not this vehicle is what ends up on the road in 2009
    remains to be seen.
    Richard S. Chang, New York Times:
    "People ... meet the ultimate environmental fantasy:
    It’s electric! It’s solar! It’s wind-powered! No, it’s not real."

    Auto Show

    Mitsubishi i MiEV Sport
    Mitsubishi’s Electric Pu Pu Platter

    Published: March 22, 2008

    Hiroko Masuike for The New York Times

    Introduced on Thursday: Mitsubishi i MiEV Sport

    Is it real? People, meet the ultimate environmental fantasy: It’s electric! It’s solar! It’s wind-powered! No, it’s not real.

    What they said: “Mitsubishi has been working on electric vehicles since 1970,” said Tetsuro Aikawa, vice president of product development. The i MiEV Sport, making its North American show debut in New York, combines the electric technology that’s in the i MiEV, which is being fleet-tested as we dream, with other alternative energy sources.

    What they didn’t say: Even if it were possible to harness the power of the sun and the wind, and have functioning, durable and safe motors in the wheels, the cost of such technology would be exorbitant.

    What makes it tick? It’s powered by three electric motors. There are small motors inside each of the front wheels and a single motor placed in front of the rear axle, as in the i MiEV, driving the rear wheels. So you could say it’s an electric four-wheel drive of the future. The lithium-ion battery, which powers the motors, is supplemented by a solar panel on the roof and two wind turbines located in the front grille.

    How much, how soon? The better question might be: When will we see in-wheel motors in a production vehicle? While in-wheel motor technology has been in development for several decades, it still has several obstacles to overcome, including weight and cost. Then there’s the question of durability — keeping the electric motors in working order inside the most abused part of a car.

    How’s it look? From the outside, it actually looks like a production vehicle (and one of the brightest designs in Mitsubishi’s history). It’s a different story inside, which has the smooth glossy feel of most advanced concept vehicles.

    Copyright 2008 The New York Times Company

  8. #53

    Default Market-Ready Solar Cars/Vehicles - Mitsubishi i-MiEV Sport Image Gallery

    Mitsubishi i-MiEV Sport Gallery of Images

    Left - courtesy psfk; Right - courtesy Motor Trend

    Courtesy Motor Trend

    Left - courtesy Pink Tentacle; Right - courtesy Motorfull

    Left - courtesy the Daily Green; Right - courtesy e GM CarTech

    Courtesy Jalopnik

  9. #54

    Default Solar Concept Cars/Vehicles - Video on "Production of a Solar Car"

    Solar Concept Cars/Vehicles

    "Production of a Solar Car"

    To Access YouTube Video

    Courtesy Speed Ace Info / Auburn University

    Runtime: 04:25

  10. #55

    Default Market-Ready Electric/Electronic Cars - Tesla Roadster

    Electric/Electronic Cars

    Market-Ready in this case refers to a vehicle in which the Automaker has either
    set a Production Date or is already in Production.

    Tesla Roadster

    Posted on:

    The Tesla Roadster: Electric Sports Car
    by Sean Fisher
    Cincinnati, Ohio

    21 July 2006

    [This car has the followinf statistics:] 130 mph. 13,500 RPM. 0-60mph in about four seconds. H-O-T! Meet the Tesla Roadster, the car that hopes to elevate plug-in electrics to lustworthy status. Judging from car-guru Jalopnik's first impressions, we feel it should have no difficulty in doing so. Not only does it have a design pedigree from famed UK sports car company Lotus, the engine, though quiet, promises to push you back into your seat. Even better, the battery technology seems to be relatively painless, something that will go a long way in pushing electric mainstream. In a measely 3.5 hour charge (into a standard outlet), the Roadster will take you 250 miles...more than long enough for most of us and farther than you could go on a tank of gas in your typical gas-guzzling sports car.

    Of course, when you want to compete with Porsche and Lamborgini, there is certainly going to be $$$ involved. However, the damage isn't as bad as some might expect. Depending on who you listen to, the Roadster should be going for $80-100,000. Looks like most of us might need to wait at least a couple years - that is when Telsa plans to come out with a plug-in electric sedan for about half the price of the Roadster. However, if you have the cash, the Roadster could turn into a relative sports car bargain once you take it on the road. According to the company, it should only cost approximately $.01/mile in energy costs. Compare that to conventional gasoline engines...well, let's just say gas is a bit more expensive (not to mention the obvious environmental costs). Look for the Tesla Roadster to hit the US sometime "early" next year.



    Posted on:

    Tesla Roadster: The Electric Car that Redefines "Power"

    by Michael Graham Richard,
    Gatineau, Canada

    28 August 2006

    Image created by

    … Engine trouble? Forgot to change the oil and air filter--again? Or did the transmission give out? Need any other major repair job? Someday you may never have these headaches again. Enter Tesla's Roadster. It's electric and its features eclectic. This new uber sports car–launched in July, 2006—will never require a call to Car Talk. The two popular Boston radio hosts might be scratching their heads between calls.

    We've profiled the car at TreeHugger already, but given its paradigm-shifting design, we feel its technical side merits a review in itself; here we’ll demonstrate what actually makes it tick.

    We're looking at an electric car that is fundamentally different in probably almost every conceivable way from any other vehicle you've heard of or driven. Taking a closer look inside, we examine the mechanical specifications of the car as discussed in the whitepaper co-authored by founder and CEO Martin Eberhard; it is available at Tesla's website.

    Tesla's flagship Roadster sports a very unique design—in more ways than one. The power system comes most immediately to mind. Historically battery capacity was limited by its unweildly mass as well as of the inconvenience of finding recharging stations and then waiting to get the juice refreshed. In this marque, those employed are based on essentially the same Lithium-ion variety found in the typical laptop PC. Chosen due to their superior charge capacity as well as longevity, the batteries themselves are far superior to the lead-acid variety (well over 100,000 miles—a four to one advantage).

    The power supply is partitioned into 11 sectors of 621 cells, each of which is linked to its own processor, serving to monitor both the rates of charge and discharge for each cell. This structure makes for “intelligent,” dynamic charging throughout to coordinate optimal performance of the system as a whole.

    The inverter relies upon 72 insulated transistors to convert DC energy into AC power. Since transistors generate little heat, the air cooling system is simple and not heavy. As for heating inside, electric-generated heat can be delivered “immediately” on demand—no more waiting for the engine to warm up on a sub-freezing winter morning!

    The regenerative braking system (popularized by cars such as the Prius but discussed in scientific journals for decades) captures some of the vast amount of energy typically lost in automotive systems. As a by-product of this integrated system, it places virtually no wear on the brakes themselves since gears in the generators capture much of energy normally wasted when the typical car brakes.

    More importantly still, there are far fewer moving parts to repair or maintain, since it has no internal combustion engine. According to the whitepaper, “The only work that a well designed electric car will need for its first 100,000 miles is tire service and inspection.” The battery longevity is rated for the same distance.

    Owing to enhanced technology, the Roadster gives its driver nearly 80% greater power than the now-defunct EV1, GM's famous flagship electric car. The rotor at the center of the AC motor is made of brazed copper, which is more efficient than the conventional construction made of aluminum. A revolutionary design, it represents a new “plateau” of sorts in the electric car world. The start-up derives its name from the famous engineer Nicholas Tesla who invented the AC induction motor, a breakthrough in his time.

    To ensure optimal safety, a host of sophisticated features are always on the watch for signs of trouble. A computer works in conjunction with the drive train and sensors to deliver optimal road traction and reduced wear on the tires. Some other devices include a smoke detector, voltage meter, temperature gage, water sensor, and accelerometer to detect rapid changes in car velocity typical of accidents. Upon impact in such an event, the batteries’ built-in “intelligence” enables them to shut themselves off to avoid an explosion or fire.

    If Tesla's philosophy seems revolutionary, it's because it is. It's unabashedly here to "make waves," to redefine the rules throughout the industry. It’s simply not meant to be like any other car on the road today.

    Fast (sometimes referred to as "muscle") cars have always won the hearts of the driving public. But the perception of speed has driven many to purchase cars that sport acceleration they don't really need and top speeds that are—well, (ecologically and economically) unsustainable. Based on the spiritual precept that “time is an illusion,” speed and acceleration become dubious notions or values, as well, since they are both functions of time. But the love of cars won’t die easily. We must concede the fact that America still adores its cars, and probably always will--particularly sporty ones.

    What if you could enjoy the pick-up without sacrificing the wallet? With Tesla, drivers can actually have their cake and "drive it," too--if you will. You sacrifice only driving range (albeit a generous 250 miles) and just over three hours charging time. But you would never have to wait in line at another gas station again or worry about finding gas. Electric rates should be essentially the same (almost "free") wherever you go.

    Perhaps implicit in Tesla’s mission, it would appear that from now on the new definition of “power” inherent in automotive technology should be shifted to acknowledge the relative savings they afford you as you travel from points A to B in comfort and style and the luxury of not having to decide which gas is the cheapest.

    Behind the Design Coup: Disruptive Technology

    In most industries, a radically different design or technology comes to the fore every so often. Such a design, coming seemingly "out of nowhere" and attaining what author Malcolm Gladwell refers to in his book of the same name a "tipping point," can "take over" almost overnight. Market analysts refer to this as a "disruptive" technology or business practice.

    Disruptive technologies--such as those found under the Roadster's back seat—may be coming just around the corner now in the automotive industry. Anyone who has read Clayton Christensen’s The Innovator Dilemma will recall dramatic examples of these in a number of divergent industries. Cars' internal combustion engines have--curiously--resisted such disruptions with respect to their engine designs since their inception in the late 1800s. (We probably have the fossil fuels industry to thank for this.) These engines are still overwhelmingly dominant after just over a century. However, with declining supplies of oil in these tense times in the Middle East, and the damage Katrina wrought to the oil ports in the Gulf of Mexico, the climate may be ready for a dramatic shift away from fossil fuels, or a disruption.

    Winning Marketing Strategy

    Eberhard’s game plan may be to introduce a true enthusiast’s car where money is not an issue for its intended demographic segment. The Roadster, not yet publicly available, is projected to cost some $80-$100,000. As a class, the wealthy can most readily buy the cars to help pay the high expenses of a product not yet enjoying the benefits of economies of scale. The intended result is getting them out into the mainstream while the public warms up to its perhaps even bigger market potential for the non-wealthy just a couple years down the road.

    Once he has established a phalanx of support from high performance enthusiasts, he can then send out a contingent of moderately priced sedans. Conservatively appointed vehicles with scaled down versions of the Roadster’s power system will target the average person’s needs and budgets. They are expected to arrive on the scene in 2008. Far more affordable than the Roadster, the sedan just might help Tesla claim even more solid market share far more quickly than the Roadster has. Also, it would stand to greatly broaden the market for Tesla's vehicles. In fact, a third and even more affordable car model may well hit the market within the next three years.

    In so doing, he hopes to dispel the myth that electric cars are by definition inherently “punishment cars,” the phrase Eberhard likes to use to refer to his Roadster’s erstwhile second cousins sporting mediocre styling and room inside. One thing is likely: even without advertising, many automotive enthusiasts will have heard of Tesla before too long.*

    *Within less than a month of the Roadster’s release, the first 100 vehicle orders for a slightly more expensive limited edition already have been placed.


  11. #56

    Default Market-Ready Electric/Electronic Cars - Videos on Tesla Roadster

    Videos on Tesla Roadster

    This is an ABC News "Nightline" segment on Tesla Roadster.
    This segment occurred during the Test Marketing phase,
    and went over the Airways on the 21st of May, 2007.
    Reporter, Vicki Mabrey, talked with
    each founder separately.

    To Access YouTube Video


    Runtime 07:33

    Netscape and Autoblog Green were at a private unveiling
    of the Tesla Roadster, with several VIPs ...
    including Arnold Schwarzenegger.

    To Access YouTube Video

    Courtesy CNET Networks

    Runtime 03:01

    Commercial on Tesla Roadster

    To Access YouTube Video


    Runtime 01:43

    Tim Reha, the Interviewer, and Aaron Plashton, both take a drive in a Tesla Roadster on a cramped beach. Mr. Plashton of Tesla mentions that 400 Tesla Roadsters have been sold to date. He also chats about a Lotus / Tesla Motors collaboration. Somewhere near the end, he gets around to price -and it is steep. At just under 100,000 USD, it may save you gas, but not money.

    To Access YouTube Video

    Courtesy Littering and…

    Runtime 05:54

  12. #57
    Chief Antagonist Ninjahedge's Avatar
    Join Date
    Sep 2003


    Looks really nice.

    This is probably the only market that will be viable for something like this right now. One where you can spend the extra $$ for a machine you will not (and really cannot) take across country with you.

    Toned down versions for the daily commuter (<100 miles) would probably be the next step, as well as supplimentary home power stations (solar, wind) to help you charge.

    Aside from that the only thing I see as a weakness is its 3+ hour (is that right) charge time. It is much faster than the old school Ni-Cd batteries of yesteryear, but it still mekes it so that even at regulated highway speeds, you can only put in 4 hours before you call it a day. That is barely enough to get you to Boston or DC.

    City dwellers would also be at a disadvantage in not having things like garages or places to plug in at night, but they would be a small part of the market.

    I think this is a great first step, and I am looking forward to it. Maybe if/when I move to the 'burbs this will be the car for me! (Or its cheaper, larger second cousin twice removed...)

  13. #58


    From their website's FAQs (this material needs to be updated however):

    How long does it take to recharge?

    That depends on how far the battery has been discharged and what source is being used to charge the batteries. A full charge using the Home Charging Station (included in the price of the Tesla Roadster) can be achieved in as little as 3.5 hours.

    However, an electric car is a bit like a cell phone: it does not matter how long it takes to charge as long as a charge lasts all day. You plug it in when you get home, and unplug it when you leave in the morning.

    How do you recharge it?

    Unlike EVs of the past, the Tesla Roadster has a built-in battery charging system that can basically plug into any outlet. The car ships with a particularly easy-to-use Home Charging Station that is installed in your garage by a qualified electrician. There is also an optional mobile charging kit that allows you to charge from any available electrical outlet (110V or 220V) wherever you happen to be.

    How far can the Tesla Roadster drive between charges?

    Actual range depends on driving style and conditions. During testing of prototypes cars, Tesla Motors has seen between 170 miles per charge for very spirited driving to 267 miles per charge for city driving that makes use of the Roadster's regenerative braking. Our most recent EPA driving cycle tests, conducted November 26-30, 2007, at an EPA-certified facility, resulted in the following numbers:

    • 230 mi EPA city
    • 211 mi EPA highway
    • 221 mi EPA combined (city/highway)

    Keep in mind that Tesla Motors is in the midst of final development and testing for the Tesla Roadster. While we are confident in our most recent numbers, the final results will be dependent on the car's specifications at series production. We will update our EPA range numbers once we have fully tested a production Roadster, expected in early 2008.


  14. #59

    Default Market-Ready Electric/Electronic Cars - Tesla Roadster Dealerships

    Electric/Electronic Cars

    Tesla Roadster Dealerships
    Starting with a Flagship in Los Angeles California, this will soon be followed by a
    Stanford California Dealership, on the northern end of the state.

    T. O'Leary

    Tesla Store Los Angeles
    by Tom OLeary
    General Manager, Tesla Store

    Wednesday, May 14th, 2008

    Last week we opened our first ever Tesla Store in Los Angeles on Santa Monica Blvd.

    The Tesla Roadster is a revolutionary car and our Tesla Stores will be no less revolutionary as an automotive retail experience.

    Store Front

    What’s so different? Well, pretty much everything, but here’s the main idea. We want to create welcoming spaces, where our guests feel comfortable and in their element. And we want to create a sense of unity about the whole operation where there’s no wall of separation between the showroom and service.

    One of the very first things you’ll notice about our new store is that the service area is side-by-side with the showroom and connected to it in a very open way. Service actually has the bigger window onto Santa Monica Blvd. Electric cars are cleaner around the shop. Less oil, no fumes. We knew our service area would be a showpiece, so we figured: why not put it out front where everyone can see? Plus, it just fits with our feeling that more public transparency is a good thing.


    Service Area

    The same is true in a way with the showroom experience. In the traditional car-buying world, the object of the seller is control.

    Control of information and control of you, from the minute you get on the lot until you finally pull yourself free. As a manufacturer, our approach will be radically different. We feel it’s our job to build products that you fall in love with. So when you come to the Tesla Store we want to be completely transparent and be as accommodating as possible.We like to think it’s our job to get out of the way and let the car do the talking, then help out wherever we can. In that kind of environment, you have the space to decide for yourself if this is the right car for you.

    Look for our next store to open at
    in the San Francisco Bay Area
    this summer.

    © 2008 Tesla Motors, Inc. All rights reserved. ‘Tesla Motors’ and ‘Tesla Roadster’ are trademarks of Tesla Motors, Inc.

  15. #60

    Default Market-Ready Electric/Electronic Cars - Tesla Roadster Specifications

    Electric/Electronic Cars

    Tesla Roadster Specifications:
    Measuring an Electric sports car that is surprisingly quick, quiet, and fun.

    Acceleration & Torque

    Instant Freedom

    The first time you drive the Tesla Roadster, prepare to be surprised. You're at freeway speed in seconds without even thinking about it. There is no clutch pedal to contend with and no race-car driving techniques to perform. Just the touch of your foot and you're off, without any of the sluggishness of an automatic.

    How powerful is the acceleration? A quick story to illustrate. A favorite trick here at Tesla Motors is to invite a passenger along and ask him to turn on the radio. At the precise moment we ask, we accelerate. Our passenger simply can't sit forward enough to reach the dials. But who needs music when you're experiencing such a symphony of motion.

    Rest assured that this responsiveness works at all speeds, as noticeable when you're inching your way through parking lots as when flying along freeways.

    100% Torque, 100% of the Time

    The Tesla Roadster delivers full availability of performance every moment you are in the car, even while at a stoplight. Its peak torque begins at 0 rpm and stays powerful at 13,000 rpm.

    This is the precise opposite of what you experience with a gasoline engine, which has very little torque at a low rpm and only reaches peak torque in a narrow rpm range. This forces you to make frequent gear changes to maintain optimal torque. With the Tesla Roadster, you get great acceleration and the highest energy efficiency at the same time. All while requiring no special driving skills to enjoy it. This makes the Tesla Roadster six times as efficient as the best sports cars while producing one-tenth of the pollution.


    Electric Power

    Drive Quickly, Tread Lightly

    Most electric vehicles operate under the assumption that driving is merely a necessary evil if you need to get someplace you can’t reach on foot or bike. The result has been cars that are designed, built, and marketed in ways that refuse to glorify driving.

    We respectfully disagree. We believe driving is exhilarating. Just watch any child on a go-cart and the joy is plain to see. And when you can soar along at top speed, knowing the only oil in the car is in the transmission, the only emissions are the songs from the radio, the ride becomes more enjoyable still.

    The Ultimate Multi-Fuel Vehicle

    Electric cars equal freedom. Not simply from oil reliance, but from dependence on any specific power source. Electric power can be generated from natural gas, coal, solar, wind, hydro, and nuclear sources — or a combination of all of them — without changing the design of the car. No matter how or when the world changes, the car adapts, making it immune from obsolescence.

    We foresee a day when all cars run on electric power and when people will struggle to remember a time when a love of driving came with a side order of guilt.

    No More Tradeoffs

    Up until now, if you wanted a car with amazing gas mileage, you’d pick something like the leading hybrid; but when you pressed down the gas pedal to zip up a freeway on-ramp, you'd likely be a little disappointed — it takes over 10 seconds to reach 60 miles per hour. On the other hand, if you demanded the 0 to 60 times of a $300,000 supercar, you'd wind up with an embarrassing 9 miles to the gallon in the city.

    The graph below shows the Tesla Roadster (upper right) in a class by itself with better acceleration than a Lamborghini Murcielago and twice the mile-per-gallon equivalent of popular hybrids. The highly efficient Tesla Roadster gets the equivalent of 135 miles per gallon with an enviable 0 to 60 time of less than four seconds.


    Performance Specs - 2008 Model Year

    The Tesla Roadster’s specs illustrate what it does (0 to 60 mph in under 4 seconds) — as well as what it doesn’t (zero emissions, zero motor oil). With one moving part in the motor, no clutch pedal, and two gears, it’s not only a joy to drive, but to own as well. There is no motor oil to change; no filters, belts, or spark plugs to replace; no oxygen sensors to mistrust before an emissions test.

    Tesla Roadster Specifications*

    2-seat, open-top, rear-drive roadster

    Electric motor with 2-speed electrically-actuated-manual-shift transmission with integral differential

    3-phase, 4-pole electric motor, 248hp peak (185kW), redline 13,000 rpm, regenerative "engine braking"

    Bonded extruded aluminum with 4-wheel wishbone suspension

    4-wheel disc brakes with ABS

    0 to 60 in under 4 seconds

    Top Speed
    125 mph

    About 220 miles
    (based on EPA combined city/highway cycle)

    Battery Life
    Useful battery, 100,000 miles

    Energy Storage System
    Custom microprocessor-controlled lithium-ion battery pack

    Full Charge
    About 3.5 hours

    • - [Tesla is] ... currently in the midst of final safety and durability testing for the Tesla Roadster. While [Tesla is] ... confident of [the] ... numbers, this testing may require design changes that affect the final specifications.

    © 2008 Tesla Motors, Inc. All rights reserved. ‘Tesla Motors’ and ‘Tesla Roadster’ are trademarks of Tesla Motors, Inc.

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