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Thread: History New York 20th century

  1. #181

    Default Manhattan 1960s

    1969

    Hello!, We're back again with this travel through the history of New York skyscrapers. Now, we say goodbye to the 1960s with this general panorama of 1969. The year that the first man took his feet in the Moon surface during the Apollo 11 mission. 1969 is the year of Woodstock Rock Festival and more of half million of young people enjoy the magic of the Rock music in a historic sesion. Richard Nixon assume the presidence and begun the shamest political era that it be ended with the Watergate scandal, in 1973-74. With Nixon the crisis in Vietnam took the cenit: the army abuses more and more agains the Vietnamise and Camboyan population and the American people were more angried than never against U.S Goverment. The Nixon goverment was answered with represion.

    But, in New York in its skyscraper architecture, entire Manhattan continued to live a climax moment of the office building boom that begun in the 1950s. Many offices building were completed and many more others was to be rises changing Manhattan skyline, but that construction activity begun to created a over-offering of ofice space and in these moment, many great companies beugn to move into suburbs. While, the Fisco crisis storkes the urban infraestructure in the city.






    Many office skyscrapers were completed and opened during 1969:
    • 55-story Burlington House Building on Sixth Avenue between West 54th to 55th Streets.
    • 45-story 345 Park Avenue Building.
    • 45-story Bankers Trust Annex Building.
    • 45-story 1133 Sixth Avenue Building.
    • 50-story One New York Plaza (opened on late 1969)
    • 40-story One Battery Park Plaza (opened on late 1969)
    • 45-story 1700 Broadway Building
    • 42-story 1411 Broadway Building
    • 47-story Random House Building (opened in april 1969)
    • 30-story 100 Wall Street Building (opened on Autumn 1969).
    • 36-story Architects and Designers Building in Lexington Avenue and southeast corner of 58th Street.
    • 36-story Cooper-Bergstein Building in Broadway between East 31st and 32nd Streets.
    Many office buildings were under construction during 1969
    • 110-story World Trade Center Twin Towers (The North Tower reach 20 stories during the late summer 1969, but in december, the tower recahed the first Sky Lobby, and be in the 43 floor. While, the South Tower begun to rises in early summer 1969).
    • 45-story Gulf & Western Building at Columbus Circle
    • 52-story 919 Third Avenue Building.
    • 55-story Standard Oil Headquartes Building (Exxon Building or Building "X") in Rockefeller Center (the steel structure of the building begun to rises on summer 1969).
    • 45-story J.P. Stevens Building (the structure begun to rises in late spring 1969. In December 1969, the steel skeleton rises 35 stories.
    • 54-story One Astor Plaza at 1515 Broadway (the steel structure of the building begun to rises on late 1969).
    • 42-story Two New York Plaza (the steel structure begun to rises in the summer).
    • 45-story 810 Seventh Avenue Building.
    • 50-story 888 Seventh Avenue Building.
    While, construction activity begun for the next buildings that schedulled to be completed until 1970 and 1972.
    • 51-story new McGraw-Hill Headquarters Building (Building "Y") in Rockefeller Center (demolition of existing buildings and excavation).
    • 55-story One Liberty Plaza (excavation work continues during 1969. The steel structure begun to rises in November).
    • 55-story 55 Water Street complex (excavation).
    • 52-story 600 Third Avenue Building (excavation).
    • 52-story W.R. Grace Building (demolition of the old Stern & Bros Department Store, in 42nd Street)
    • 55-story Uris Plaza at Broadway between West 50th to 51st Streets (demolition of existing buildings included the old Capitol Theatre).
    • 40-story New York Telephone Building. Bryant Park offices (demolition of existing buildings and excavation).
    • 45-story Celanesse Building (Building "Z") in Rockefeller Center (demolition of existing buildings).
    • 33-story One State Plaza (excavation).
    Now, a general panorama of 1969:

    A model of the new McGraw-Hill Building for the Rockefeller Center. 1969. From Architectural Record. April 1969.




    Night view of the new look of Midtown Manhattan skyline looking east from Hudson River. January 1969. Photo 1 of 2




    Photo 2 of 2




    Aerial view of Midtown Manhattan looking east. February 1969. Photo: Skyviews Aerial Surveys.




    Herald Square. February 1969.





    Midtown Manhattan looking south from RCA Building. February 1969.




    Night view of Midtown Manhattan looking west from Queens-Midtown Tunnel entrance. February 1969. Photo: Hideaki Sato.




    Midtown Manhattan looking northwest from Empire State Building. The building under construction of the center of the picture is the 1411 Broadway Building. The building of the extreme right is the 1133 Avenue of the Americas Building.




    Night view of Midtown Manhattan looking south from RCA Building. February 1969.




    Night view of Fifth Avenue. February 1969.




    The Americana Hotel from 1700 Broadway Building. February 1969.




    Aerial view of Midtown Manhattan looking northeast showin the sites for future Exxon and McGraw-Hill buildings. March 1969. Photo: Skyviews Aerial Surveys. From ARCHITECTURAL RECORD Magazine. April 1969.




    Night view of the New York Public Library with the Empire State Building at background. March 1969.




    Aerial view of Lower Manhattan looking north. April 1969. Photo: Skyviews Aerial Surveys.




    The new skyline of Central Park. View of he Fifth Avenue towers from Central Park showing the new General Motors Building. April 1969.




    Midtown Manhattan looking northeast from Empire State Building. April 1969.




    Construction activity on the World Trade Center site. April 1969. Photo: Hideaki Sato.




    The 1411 Broadway Building (Irwing Chanin) nearly completion. May 1969. Photo: Wurts




    Aerial view of Lower Manhattan looking north. May 1969.




    Another erspective of Lower Manhattan. May 1969.




    Fifth Avenue looking north from Empire State Building. The General Motors Building appear in the top of the picture. May 1969.




    Evening view of Times Square looking south from 47th Street. May 1969.




    Lower Manhattan new skyline looking north from Staten Island ferry showing the One New York Plaza under construction at right. May 1969. Photo: Hideaki Sato.



    Lower Manhattan looking west from Brooklyn Heighs. May 1969.





    Construction activity on the World Trade Center. The North Tower begun to rises. May 1969. Photo: Hideaki Sato.




    Midtiown Manhattan looking northwest from Kips Bay Plaza. May 1969.




    Aerial view of Statue of Liberty with Lower Manhattan skyline on the background. May 1969.




    Night view of the Madison Square Garden and Two Penn Plaza Building. May 1969.




    Taking a ride on a horse car on Grand Army Plaza. May 1969.




    Night view of the Empire State Building from RCA Building. May 1969.




    The New York Telephone Building (Kahn & Jacobs, 1967), on 233 East 37th Street. May 1969.




    Aerial view of Midtown Manhattan looking southeast from Hudson River. May 1969.





    Aerial view of the Rockefeller Center looking northwest. June 1969. Photo: Thomas Airviews.




    Aerial view of Midtown Manhattan looking southeast from Hudson River. June 1969.




    Love in New York: Evening view of Midtown Manhattan looking south from Central Park with two lovers. June 1969.





    Construction activity on the World Trade Center: The North Tower (center) now reach 11 stories. The South Tower (center) begun to rise. June 1969. Photo: Hideaki Sato




    The new 45-story 345 Park Avenue Building as seen from RCA Building looking east. July 1969.




    The CBS Building. July 1969.




    Midtown Manhattan looking south from RCA Building. July 1969.




    Lower Manhattan's Financial District skyline looking west from Brooklyn Harbor docks. July 1969.




    Midtown Manhattn looking northeast from Empire State Building. July 1969.



    Times Square at night. July 1969.




    Aerial view of Lower Manhattan looking north. August 1969.




    Four and One New York Plaza buildings. August 1969. Photo: Ezra Stoller.




    The "New Look" of Lower Manhattan begun to took shape: view looking north. August 1969.




    The RCA Building Observation Deck. View looking east. August 1969. The building under construction at the center (background) of the picture is the new 50-story 919 Third Avenue Building.




    Air pollution in New York. View of Midtown Manhattan looking south from Sperry Rand Building. September 1, 1969. The building of the middle is the 1133 Avenue of the Americas Building. The Empire State Building appear on the left.




    September 2, 1969. The air begun to be dirty. The building to be under construction on the foreground is the J.P Stevens Building that schedule for its completion in 1971.




    Aerial view in infrarred of Manhattan Island looking northwest. September 1969.




    Aerial view of Midtown Manhattan looking northwest showing the United Nations Headquarters on the foreground. The clear-green-blue tower inmediately on the right of the UN Secretariat tower is the 47-story Random House Building. Sep`tember 1969.




    Aerial view of the North Tower of the World Trade Center Twin Towers under construction looking northwest. September 1969. Now, the North Tower rises 26 stories.




    Lower Manhattan looking north from Staten Island ferry showing the new 40-story One Battery Park Building (center) and the new One New York Plaza, nearby completion (right). September 1969.




    Lower Manhattan from the Empire State Building. September 1969.




    Midtown Manhattan looking northeast from Empire State Building. September 1969.




    Midtown Manhattan looking southeast from Hudson River. September 1969.




    Midtown Manhattan looking northwest from Empire State Building. Buildings unbder construction, from left to right is: 810 Seventh Avenue Building, J.P. Stevens Building on Sixth Avenue and behind it the Exxon Building. September 1969.




    Construction activity on World Trade Center. The Twin Towers under construction as seen from a Parking Lot. October 1969.




    Moratorium Day against Vietnam War in Central Park. November 1969.




    Lower Manhattan's Financial District skyscrapers looking northeast from Hudson River. December 1969. Photo: Sardoya.




    Next week, began the 1970's with a general panorama of 1970.

    If you have a commentary or want to put a picture about the history of New York skyscrapers, please, show in this post.
    Last edited by erickchristian; December 20th, 2010 at 01:47 AM.

  2. #182

    Default

    Erick,
    maravilloso aporte de imagenes de los edificios de nueva york. Felicitaciones y gracias

  3. #183

    Default

    Quote Originally Posted by CARLOS CALLE View Post
    Erick,
    maravilloso aporte de imagenes de los edificios de nueva york. Felicitaciones y gracias

    Hola Carlos:

    Gracias por tu comentario. Por cierto, eres la primera persona en este blog que responde en español. Este blog es un homenaje a los rascacielos de esta gran ciudad. Aunque vivo en la Ciudad de Mèxico y nunca en mi vida he viajado a los Estados Unidos, es gracias a los libros que durante 20 años he avivado mi amor por Manhattan.

    Un abrazo:

    Erick Christian Alvarez Soto

  4. #184

    Default

    Greetings to all.

    I very much interested in history of New York till 1950. The photo business good, but whether can someone share records of those days. I have a little but from 1900-1917, it would be desirable to look at records and later of this period.

    If to whom that I can interestingly lay out the files ))))

  5. #185

    Default

    As I've said, I love the thread. I can't wait to see what kind of WTC pictures you dig up from your sources.

  6. #186

    Default Manhattan 1970s

    1970


    Hi!! We're back again with this travel on the time through the history of New York skyscrapers during the 20th. Century. Now, begin the 1970's with a general panorama of 1970. In these year the Nixon's goverment continuing to reprimed the student manifestations against Vietnam War that was culminated with the massacre of Kent University in May 7, 1970. Two students were killed.






    In New York confrontation of the young people and the stablishmed were a climax when in May 20, 1970, many construction workers who support the war were confrontated by anti-Vietman war students in the proximities of the City Hall in the Financial District area. The curiosity of this action was that many construction workers of the World Trade Center were involved in these actions of violence.

    Photo: Corbis.





    1970 was the year of the begining of the Ecologist movement, in April 22 were celebrated the first Earth Day and many people were worried by planet pollution.


    1970 was the year that the femminist movement were on climax. In August, many women were protest for regognize her rights.


    1970 was the year of the breaking of The Beatles and the end of Hippie movement. Two hreat rock stars were died on these year: Jimi Hendrix and Jannis Joplin when new stars begun to rises: The Jackson 5 with Michael Jackson, The Carpenters, the Patridge Family, Bread, Alice Cooper and others.

    1970 was the year that every young people wearing bell bottoms and another extravagances.


    In New York, 1970 was the year that the Twin Towers of World Trade Center rises up and begun to dominate the skyline. 1970 was the year that New York were on a deepest fiscal crisis and the city wasn't have money to support the city mean infrastructure.


    When the construction activity were increassed during 1970 and the office building boom were continuing on a climax and many office buildings were under construction or completed.










    Many office skyscrapers were completed and opened during 1970:
    • 45-story Gulf & Western Building at Columbus Circle
    • 52-story 919 Third Avenue Building.
    • 45-story 810 Seventh Avenue Building.
    • 29-story 77 Pine Street Building
    While, many office buildings were under construction and rises during 1970
    • 110-story World Trade Center Twin Towers (The North Tower steel skeleton were completed before Christmas 1970. While, the South Tower rises 70 stories during the Christmas).
    • 55-story Standard Oil Headquartes Building (Exxon Building or Building "X") in Rockefeller Center (the steel structure of were completed in autum 1970).
    • 51-story new McGraw-Hill Headquarters Building (Building "Y") in Rockefeller Center.
    • 54-story One Astor Plaza at 1515 Broadway (the steel structure of the building were completed in late Summer 1970).
    • 42-story Two New York Plaza (the building were rises up and completed during 1970).

    • 55-story One Liberty Plaza.
    • 55-story 55 Water Street complex (the building begun to rises up in the Summer 1970).
    • 52-story 600 Third Avenue Building .
    • 52-story W.R. Grace Building (The building begun to rises on late spring 1970 on reach 25 stories during the Christmas 1970)
    • 55-story Uris Plaza at Broadway between West 50th to 51st Streets (the building begun to rises on early 1970 and in the Christmas, the steel structure reach 40 stories).
    • 33-story One State Plaza.
    • 45-story J.P. Stevens Building (The building exterior were completed in autum 1970).
    • 50-story 888 Seventh Avenue Building (the building exterior facade were completed in late 1970).
    • 45-story Hemsley Park Lane Hotel, in Central Park South.
    • 40-story Harper & Row Building.
    • 52-story 9 West 57th Street (Solow) Building (The steel frame of the building begun to rises on late summer 1970).
    • 33-story EMI Capitol Building
    While, construction activity begun for many office buildings:

    40-story New York Telephone Building. Bryant Park offices (excavation).
    45-story Celanesse Building (Building "Z") in Rockefeller Center (excavation).
    52-story Dag Hammaskjord Plaza (excavation)
    48-story 1166 Sixth Avenue Building (demolition of existing building and excavation)
    30-story 88 Pine Street Building (excavation).
    57-story One Penn Plaza Building (excavation).
    46-story Blue Cross Building (excavation)


    Now, a general panorama of 1970:

    Aerial view of Lower Manhattan looking northwest. January 1970. The building under construction of the center of the picture is the Two New York Plaza Building.




    Night view of Midtown Manhattan looking northeast from RCA Building. January 1970. The General Motors were fully illuminated.




    A helichopter flies over Midtown Manhattan. The black building that near completion of the left side of the picture is the 919 Third Avenue Building. April 1970.




    Aerial view of the General Motors Building. April 1970.




    Aerial view of Lower Manhattan looking west from Brooklyn. The World Trade Center's North Tower under construction begun to dominate the skyline. April 1970. Photo: Skyviews Aerial Surveys.




    Aerial view of Midtown Manhattan looking northwest from East River. April 1970.




    Lower Manhattan skyline's new look takes shape. Lower Manhattan and Brooklyn Bridge. View to the southwest. April 1970.




    The Sixth Avenue looking south from ABC Building. The tower under construction of the center of the picture is the J.P. Stevens Building. April 1970.




    Night view of Midtown Manhattan looking northwest from Empire State Building. April 1970.




    Night view of Midtown Manhattan looking northeast from Empire State Building. April 1970.




    Columbus Circle skyscraper from Central Park. The tall buiilding of the left is the new 45-story Gulf+Western Building. May 1970.




    Aerial view of the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center under construction looking east. May 1970.




    Aerial view of the Twin Towers under construction looking northeast. May 1970.




    Lower Manhattan's new skyline looking north from Staten Island ferry. May 1970.




    Aerial view of the Statue of Liberty. Lower Manhattan appear on the background and the new Twin Towers of WTC under construction begining to dominate the skyline. May 1970.




    Pollution in New York City. Aerial view of Lower Manhattan looking north. May 1970.




    An innusual and psychedellic view of Midtown Manhattan looking northeast from Empire State Building. May 1970.




    Night view of Midtown Manhattan looking north from Empire State Building. The building under construction from extreme left to the center of the picture is: In Times Square (left) can see the skeleton of One Astor Plaza under construction, and in Sixth Avenue (center) can see the J.P. Stevens Building and Exxon Building under construction. May 1970.




    Aerial view of Manhattan Island looking north. May 1970.




    Aerial view of Midtwon Manhattan looking north. The building under construction of the left of the picture is the One Astor Plaza. The Empire State Building is in the center of the picture and the Rockefeller Center and the new Sixth Avenue buildings appears behind it. The Pan Am Building were at right of the Picture. In the top of the picture, at center as seen Central Park and the General Motors Building. June 1970.




    The General Motors Building. June 1970.




    Aerial view of the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center looking northeast. July 1970.




    Pollution in New York. Midtown Manhattan looking south from RCA Building in a day with smog. July 1970.




    The Empire State Building looking from Hudson River. July 1970.




    The new face of Park Avenue. View looking south from 52nd Street. July 1970.




    The Chase Manhattan Bank. July 1970.




    The United Nations Headquarters buildings. View from East River looking southwest showing Midtown buildings. July 1970.




    The One New York Plaza fire incident. August 5, 1970. Photo: Carl Schmitt. ARCHITECTURAL RECORD Magazine. September 1970.





    Lower Manhattan skyline. View looking north from Staten Island Ferry after the One New York Plaza's fire. The WTC's North Tower dominate the skyline. August 1970. Photo: Aeromexico.




    Midtown Manhattan looking northeast from Empire State Building. The building under construction of the right of the picture is the 600 Third Avenue Building. August 1970.




    Aerial view of the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center under construction. View looking north showing the Empire State Building (background) September 1970.




    Another aerial view of the new WTC towers. September 1970. Photo: A. Belva. ARCHITECTURAL RECORD Magazine. December 1970.




    Aerial view of the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center under construction looking northeast. September 1970.




    The Twin Towers of the World Trade Center under construction looking north from Downtown Athletic Club. September 1970.




    The General Motors Building. September 1970. Photo: Ezra Stoller.




    Aerial view of Lower Manhattan looking north. The North Tower of the WTC under construction dominate the skyline. October 1970.




    Aerial view of Midtown Manhattan looking west from East River. October 1970.




    Aerial view of Manhattan Island looking northwest. October 1970.




    Looking down over Sixth Avenue from New York Hilton Hotel. October 1970.




    Lower Manhattan's Financial District new skyline looking west from Brooklyn Harbor. October 1970.




    Midtown Manhattan skyline looking east from Hudson River. October 1970.




    The 55-story Burilington House Building. October 1970. Photo: Wurts.




    Midtown Manhattan looking southwest from East River showing the United Nations Headquaters building. October 1970.




    Aerial view of Midtown Manhattan looking southwest from East River. November 1970.





    Aerial view of Lower Manhattan looking northeast showing the World Trade Center's Twin Towers under construction (background). November 1970.




    Lower Manhattan's Financial District looking southeast from World Trade Center's North Tower 107 floor while it was under construction. The building under constructiuon on foreground is the 55-story One Liberty Plaza, that schedule for completion until 1973. November 1970.




    Pollution in New York. Midtown skyline from New Jersey looking northeast with smog. December 1970.




    Night view of Midtown Manhattan skyline looking south from RCA Building. The building under construction that rises below the Empire State Building is the new Grace Building. December 1970.




    The Twin Towers of the World Trade Center under construction from Battery Park City landfill. December 1970. IN December 23, 1970, the North Tower's 110-story, 1450 feet steel skeleton was topped-out.




    Aerial view of the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center looking northeast. One day after the North Tower's topping-out ceremony. Christmas 1970.




    Next, a general panorama of 1971.

    If you have a commentary or want to put a picture about the history of New York skyscrapers, please, show in this post.
    Last edited by erickchristian; December 10th, 2010 at 01:20 AM.

  7. #187

    Default Manhattan 1970s

    1971

    Hi!!! We're back again with this trvel through the history of the New York Skyscrapers. Now, this week this thread celebrating this first anniversary and now, continuing with thw 1970's we show a general panorama of New York skyscrapers during 1971.

    In 1971 the political situation in America was worst. A new scandals called the Pentegon's Documents that was published by the New York Times exposed the lies and the atrocities that made by U.S. Goverment during the course of Vietnam War in the 1960's. The documents were filted to the New York Times by a Federal functionary that fotocopied the documents and distribuiting. The scandal affected directly to Richard Nixon's goverment who find to punish to the press but the New York Times and other diaries appelates to the First Amendment and win the right to published the documents. The scandal of the Pentagon's Documents were a prelude of the Watergate scandal.

    In other things, America was a turbulences: racial riots for support the liberation of black activist Angela Davis, a pennitenciary riots in New York, Anti-Vietnam demostrations in Washington, Gay rights demostrations in all great cities.

    1971 is the year of the Hot Pants for hers and bell-bottoms for his and the unisex fashion created a crazy variety of clothes for the fashion in 1971. The Rock Music begun to change and turn to be ambigous with the Glam Rock's stars like Elton John, David Bowie, T-Rex and Alice Cooper.

    1971 is the year of the friendly contacts with U.S and China, flows in Blangladesh that causes more of one million of people were dead; The religious violence rises in Ireland and Camboya was failed in the war in the same time that international terrorism begun to rises in Middle East. In Latin America, Mexican goverment's killed many students durint the Corpus Thursday's massacre in Mexico City, on June 10, 1971. In Chile, the socialist goverment of Salvador Allende rises into a more social justices and begun to rises its colaboration with Cuba.

    While in New York's architecture, the construction works of the World Trade Center's Twin Towers continuing. In July, the 110-story steel frame for the South Tower were completed on a simple topping-out ceremony.

    The fiscal crisis in New York City begun to affecte the office building construction activity. The number of office building that be proyected were descent and most of the new offices buildings that be under construction during 1971 were projected since late 1960's and scheduled for completion for 1972 or 1973. More less buildings begun to proyected in the city since 1971 buy many of these buildings were cancelled or begun to rises until late 1970's or during the 1980's.


    But many office and hotel buildings were completed during 1971.
    • 55-story Exxon Building (Building "X") in Rockefeller Center (the building were dedicated on December 1971).
    • 42-story Two New York Plaza.
    • 52-story 600 Third Avenue Building.
    • 45-story J.P. Stevens Building.
    • 33-story One State Plaza.
    • 50-story 888 Seventh Avenue Building
    • 45-story Hemsley Park Lane Hotel, in Central Park South.
    • 33-story EMI Capitol Building
    While, many office buildings continuing under construction
    • 110-story World Trade Center Twin Towers (The Topping-Out ceremony of completion of South Tower's steel skeleton were celebrated in July 1971).
    • 51-story new McGraw-Hill Headquarters Building (Building "Y") in Rockefeller Center (the building's facade were complete in the end of 1971).
    • 54-story One Astor Plaza at 1515 Broadway (the building's facade were completed in autumn 1971).
    • 55-story One Liberty Plaza.
    • 55-story 55 Water Street complex.
    • 52-story W.R. Grace Building.
    • 55-story Uris Plaza at Broadway between West 50th to 51st Streets.
    • 40-story Harper & Row Building (the building's facade were completed in late 1971).
    • 52-story 9 West 57th Street (Solow) Building.
    • 40-story New York Telephone Building. Bryant Park office building.
    • 52-story Dag Hammaskjord Plaza
    • 30-story 88 Pine Street Building
    • 57-story One Penn Plaza Building
    • 46-story Blue Cross Building
    • 44-story North American Plywood Building on Third Avenue and west 49th Street.
    While, construction activity begun for many less office buildings:
    • 45-story Celanesse Building (Building "Z") in Rockefeller Center (excavation)
    • 48-story 1166 Sixth Avenue Building (excavation).
    • 33-story 1500 Broadway Building (excavation. The building begun to rises in the autum of 1971).
    Now, a general panorama of 1971:

    Aerial view of the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center under construction looking south. January 1971.




    Night view of Midtown Manhattan looking north from Empire State Building. January 1971. The building under construction above Bryant Park (center) is the Grace Building.




    Aerial view of the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center under construction looking northeast. February 1971. Photo: Charles Rotkin.




    Sunshine view of Midtown Manhattan looking east from Hudson River. February 1971. Photo: George Tice.




    Aerial view of Lower Manhattan looking north with the Twin Towers under construction. Midtown appears on the background. March 1971.




    Aerial view of Lower Manhattan looking southeast. March 1971 Photo 1 of 2.




    Photo 2 of 2.




    Aerial view of Lower Manhattan looking west from East River showing the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center under construction. March 1971.




    The Grand Army Plaza's skyscrapers from Central Park. March 1971.




    Central Park South's skyscrapers looking south from Central Park. March 1971.




    The new Battery Park's skyscrapers looking from a Staten Island's ferry. In the background the Twin Towers under construction. March 1971.




    The New York Public Library with the new 52-story Grace Building under construction. March 1971.




    Night view of Lower Manhattan and Brooklyn Bridge. March 1971.




    Night view of Lower Manhattan skyline looking west from Brooklyn Harbor. March 1971. The building under construction that be rises on the left of the picture is the 55 Water Street Building.




    Night view of the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center under construction from East River. The Brooklyn Bridge is on foreground. March 1971.




    The new look of the Lower Manhattan skyline. View looking north from Staten Island ferry. March 1971.




    The Woolworth Building as seen from Municipal Building looking southwest showing the WTC towers under construction. March 1971.




    The Twin Towers of the World Trade Center under construction from Park Row. March 1971.




    The Museum of Modern Art entrance and modern 53rd Street skyscrapers. The silver building at the right is the 666 Fifth Avenue Building (1958) and the building under nearby completion is the new Harper & Row Building. April 1971.




    Aerial view of Lower Manhattan looking east. April 1971.




    Aerial view of Lower Manhattan looking southwest. April 1971.




    The Empire State Building as seen from Daily News Building. April 1971.




    Midtown Manhattan looking northeast from Empire State Building. April 1971.




    A detail of the picture that show above: Midtown Manhattan looking north from Empire State Building. The building under construction at foreground is the 52-story Grace Building. The building that be rises behind Rockefeller Center (background) is the new 52-story Solow Building. April 1971.




    Midtown Manhattan looking northeast from Empire State Building. April 1971.




    The new Grand Army Plaza's skyline takes shape. View of Midtown Manhattan looking south from Central Park. The General Motors Building is in the left and the skyscraper that be rises above Plaza Hotel is the Solow Building under construction. April 1971.




    Night view of Lower Manhattan from Empire State Building looking south. The Twin Towers under construction dominates the scene. April 1971.




    Night view of Midtown Manhattan looking northwest from Empire State Building. The new 54-story One Astor Plaza under construction appear fully illuminated on extreme left and the Exxon and McGraw-Hill buildings under construction can see in the center of the picture (background). April 1971.





    Night view of Midtown Manhattan skyline looking west from East River showing the United Nations headquarters on foreground. April 1971.




    Night view of the Sixth Avenue's skyscrapers and Times Square area from Empire State Building. The building under construction at the center (background) of the picture is the 55-story Uris Plaza. April 1971.



    Night view of the One Astor Plaza under construction as seen from the Empire State Building. April 1971.




    The 22-story Manufactures Hannover Trust Operations Center at Four New York Plaza Building. April 1971.




    Springtime in Central Park. April 1971.




    The Seagram Building. April 1971.




    A survivor of the Modernization: the old 1912's Tennis & Raquet Club Building on Park Avenue from Seagram Building's plaza. April 1971.




    Night view of Times Square from Allied Chemical Tower. April 1971.




    Skyscrapers on Fifth Avenue. May 1971.




    Aerial view of the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center under construction looking west. May 1971.




    Midtown Manhattan looking east from Hudson River. May 1971. Photo 1 of 2. New buildings from left to right: Uris Plaza (under construction), Exxon and McGraw Hill buildings (under construction), J.P. Stevens Building, One Astor Plaza (the crowned building nearby completion) and Grace Building (under construction).




    Midtown Manhattan looking east from Hudson River. May 1971. Photo 2 of 2. The Empire State Building appears at right.




    The Equitable Life Building on Sixth Avenue. May 1971.




    Park Avenue looking south from 49th Street. May 1971.




    The new 54-story One Astor Plaza nearly completion from Hudson River. May 1971.




    New skyscrapers on Sixth Avenue and Times Square area as seen from Hudson River. Form let to right the Uris Plaza (under construction), the Exxon and McGraw-Hill buildings (under construction) and J.P. Stevens Building. May 1971.




    New skyscrapers on Battery Park. To left to right the One Battery Park Plaza (1969), One State Plaza Buiilding (1971), and One New York Plaza (1969) with the remains of its 1970 fire on the windows. June 1971.




    Aerial view of Manhattan Island looking north. July 1971. Photo: Thomas Airviews.




    Park Avenue skyscrapers. July 1971.




    The 52-story Chemical Bank of New York on 277 Park Avenue. July 1971.




    The One New York Plaza. July 1971.




    Aerial view of the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center under construction. September 1970.




    Lower Manhattan skyline looking southwest from Civic District showing the new 15-story One Police Plaza (foreground) and the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center (background, far right). September 1971.




    Midtown Manhattan looking northeast from Empire State Building. September 1971.




    A new hotel for a old residential zone: The new 45-story modern Hemsley Park Lane Hotel looking from Central Park. September 1971. Photo: Wurts.




    Aerial view of Manhattan Island looking north. November 1971.




    Aerial view of the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center under construction looking southeast. November 1971.




    The new Lower Manhattan skyline looking northeast from Hudson River showing the Twin Towers of WTC under construction. November 1971.




    Aerial view of Lower Manhattan looking north. November 1971.





    The Queen Elizabeth 2 and the Michelangelo in Passanger Piers with Midtown Manhattan's new skyline on background. November 1971.




    The Two New York Plaza and the skeleton of the 55 Water Street Building under construction from East River. November 1971.




    Skating in Central Park. The new 45-story Gulf+Westrn Building can see on the right. December 1971.




    The new 54-story One Astor Plaza nearby completion. December 1971.




    Next week a 1971-1972 special for Rockefeller Center's Exxon and McGraw-Hill Buildings.

    If you have a commentary or want to put a picture about the history of New York skyscrapers, please, show in this post.
    Last edited by erickchristian; May 29th, 2010 at 11:26 PM. Reason: More information

  8. #188
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    Even the photography was nasty in the '70s.

  9. #189

    Default Manhattan 1970's

    1971-1972 Special

    The Rockefeller Center. Part 5.

    The Exxon and McGraw- Hill Buildings.

    Center Monoliths


    Hi: We´re be back again with this travel through the history of New York skyscrapers. Now, continuing with the 1970’s we´re show a new special for the Rockefeller Center’s new additions for 1971-1972: the new Exxon and McGraw-Hill Buildings.
    The monoliths was the first two of three monolithic buildings that be added to the Center between 1971 and 1974 that is also called X,Y and Z Buildings and it is the most recent additions of the Center until today.

    The buildings was designed by Harrison & Abramovitz, who was realized many of the Center buildings since the 1930’s, and architect Wallace Harrison was a member of the original chamber of architects of the original Rockefeller Center was collaborated with Raymond Hood in the design of the RCA Building and after the Hood’s death Harrison was designed the International, the old Time & Life Building, Eastern Airlines and U.S. Rubber Buildings, in mid and late 1930’s. Harrison in association with Abramovitz was designed the monolithic slab of the new Time & Life Building in 1958-59 and collaborate as consultant in the design of the Sperry Rand Building in early 1960’s. In 1963 Harrison began a new challenge: a new Rockefeller Center for the west side of the Sixth Avenue.

    XYZ

    The history of the X, Y and Z buildings begun in 1963 when the Rockefeller Center Inc commissioned to Harrison to development of west side of Sixth Avenue land between 47th to 50th Streets in the south of Time & Life Building, as a second phase of the metamorphosis of the Avenue of the Americas as a new financial center and it was considered the largest extension of the Rockefeller Center since it was build in the 1930’s. The zone was in these moment occupied with old and dirty 19th Century tenement buildings and slums.

    The plan called “XYZ” consist a three monolithic office supertowers of 45, 50 and 55 stories high respectively, lined in three blocks between 47th and 50th Streets with open plazas in the front of this, facing Sixth Avenue. In the original plan, Harrison considered that the central building (the future McGraw-Hill Building) facing perpendicular of the other two building in the north-south axis creating an great open plaza, much bigger than the Seagram Building’s plaza and some little than World Trade Center’s plaza.

    According with Robert A.M. Stern (1997):

    Wallace Harrison’s initial plan of the three blocks, know as the XYZ plan , called for towering slabs grouped in pinwheel formation that created a large open plaza on the blockfront between forty-eight and Forty-ninth streets as well as a smaller , Seagram-like plaza between Forty-ninth and Fiftieth streets. This plan, which oriented the central of the three proposed towers on a north-south axis, also included a private street defining the western boundary of the principal square, which would transfer at least some of the urbanity of the original Rockefeller Center to its western extension. The central square –conceived by Harrison’s partner, Max Abramovitz- would also create a forecourt to the original complex’s clifflike western edge, which had been designed to block out the El but now acted as a barrier against westward expansion. The plaza was to be sunk below street level to provide traffic-free pedestrian access to each of the new buildings and to connect with the Rockefeller Center concourse across Sixth Avenue, This plan, however, was rejected in favor of more typically Modernist vision, also by Harrison, of nearly uniform parallel slabs running east-west, each rising from a large plaza. This Le Corbusier-inspired composition not only went back to Edward Durell Stone’s early plans for the avenue but also referred to Lucio Costa’s master plan for Brasilia (1957), the new capital of Brazil, which was widely published and admired” (Stern, Robert A.M., Mellins, Thomas. Fishman, David. New York 1960. Architecture and urbanism between the Second World War and the Bicentennial. New York. The Monacelli Press. Second Edition. 1997. Page 410).

    Finally the plan was modified. Harrison presented a new plan that show that the central tower were turned to the east-west axis like the other two buildings and while negotiation begun between Rockefeller Center, Inc with the city authorities, urbanisms and the owners of the lands that be cleared by the new complex and modifies the project, the Center managements find tenements for the new buildings and find in Rockefeller’s old oil company’s, the Standard Oil Company (in 1970 was changed the name to EXXON), and the book editor McGraw-Hill (when in these time was occupied the legendary 1931 Raymond Hood’s Art Deco building in the West 42nd Street between Eight and Ninth Avenues), that be occupied the X and Y buildings. In Late 1960s the Celanese Corporation was the new mean tenement of the Z Building.

    Stern also continues:

    “As the XYZ buildings were being planned, the City Planning Commission’s Urban Design Group worked behind the scenes to salvage the spirit if not the letter of Harrison’s initial scheme. Although the center’s plan called for much larger public open spaces than were required, a zoning variance was necessary because the buildings exceeded the maximum bulk permitted by zoning. In exchange for permission to build more square footage than the law allowed, the Urban Design Group’s 1968 plans proposed pushing the three superslabs east toward the Sixth Avenue building line, more or less in the manner of Time & Life, and creating a shop-lined, glass-enclosed pedestrian promenade running north-south behind the towers, with a multilevel cross section achieved by carving out several of then building’s rear, lower floors. Also proposed was a theater in the southernmost building of the group, to be occupied by the Celanese Corporation; this unusual programmatic element was intended to the Sixth Avenue corridor in with the theater district, which was also being studied by the Urban Design Group at the time. Even though the Urban Design Group was able to interest the prominent theatrical impresario Robert Whitehead in running the proposed theater and managed to commission a preliminary design from Mitchell-Giurgola Associates, they failed to persuade the Rockefeller Center management of the virtues of the plan” (Stern. 1997. Fragment).

    Stern continues:

    “Without Nelson Rockefeller, who had embarked on a political career, Rockefeller Center, Inc. lacked a leader committed to architectural excellence. In a last-ditch effort, the Urban design Group ‘leaked’ its proposal to Ada Louise Huxtable, who discussed it in the New York Times in May 1968. Huxtable spared no feelings in her commentary:

    The corporate investors are determined to follow the same tried and true, catastrophic course of construction that has made New York at less viable place: the familiar Neolithic pattern in which a specific number of square feet of self-contained, totally depersonalized office space replaces a variety of small, necessary local facilities and functions, with the corporate giants hermetically sealed off from their surroundings by a few more pointless, windswept plazas and a dull clutch of ground-floor banks.

    In advocating the Urban Design Group’s plan Huxtable said: ‘This would be the kind of unified design that Rockefeller Center practiced but no longer preaches’” (Stern. 1997. Pages 410 and 411).

    The Exxon Building

    The 54-story Exxon Building (1968-1971) was the first building of the new Center’s extension to be designed and completed. Designed by Harrison, Abramovitz & Harris in association with Welton Beckett & Associates is the Center’s second tallest building, only behind of Center’s 70-story RCA Building (Raymond Hood, 1933).

    In November 1967, the Architectural Record Magazine says about the Exxon Building (in this moment was known as Standard Oil Company):
    “An office building for Rockefeller Center, New York City, designed by Harrison, Abramovitz & Harris, will be a 54-story tower containing 1.8 million square feet of rentable space. The project occupies the entire block from 49th to 50th Streets on the west side of the Avenue of the Americas, across from the R.C.A. Building. The Building will be a sheer rectangular tower rising from a six-story base element. Welton Becket & Associates are serving as consultant architect to Standard Oil Company, New Jersey, joint owner and principal occupant of the building. General contractor for the project is the George A. Fuller Company” (Architectural Record. November 1967. Page 41).

    The building “replaced a variety of one-to five story structures, as well as the sixteen-story Plymouth Hotel (H.I. Fieldman, 1929), and displaced fourteen of the twenty-three restaurants on the block” (Stern. 1997. Page 411). Demolition works for these building begun in August 1968 and by October the site was cleared and the excavation works begun. By May 1969 construction of the building’s steel skeleton begun to rises. In September 1970, the 54-story steel skeleton of the Exxon Building was topped out. Finally in November 1971, the building was completed.

    Aerial view of the Roclefeller Center area looking northeast in October 1968. Demolition works continue in the Exxon and McGraw-Hill buildings sites.



    Aerial view of the Rockefeller Center area, looking east showing the sites for the Exxon and McGraw-Hill buidlings. February 1969. Photo: Skyviews Aerial Surveys.




    Aerial view of the site for the Exxon and McGraw-Hill buildings. March 1969. Photo: Skyviews Aerial Surveys.




    Aerial view of the Rockefeller Center looking northwest. July 1969. Behind the RCA Building, the Exxon begun to rises.




    September 1969: The Exxon Building (center, below Time & Life Building) begun to rises. View from Empire State Building.




    Night view of Midtown Manhattan looking north from Empire State Building. May 1970. The skeleton of the Exxon Building under construction can see rises up at the center below Time-Life Building.




    Aerial view of Midtown Manhattan in June 1970. At left of the Empire State Building, at background can see the Exxon Building under construction.



    According with Stern (1997):

    “The huge 2.1 million-square-foot, fifty-four-story, 784-foot-high tower slab rose sheer from a street-level plaza on three sides. At the rear, it was locked into a seven-story wraparound base. The tower consisted of limestone-clad structural columns alternating with vertical bands of windows, in effect the same system Saarinen had introduced at the CBS Building, although here, because the columns were flush with the plane of the wall, in yielded no sense of mass” (Stern. 1997. Page 411).

    The sunken plaza of the Exxon is austere and only contained a modern Seagram’s-style fountain that covered the center of the plaza that provides a fresh moment of the building’s office workers and pedestrians. The fountain was flanked by a two lines of trees and gardens.

    The McGraw-Hill Building

    The second in high of the new extension, and the third in high on the entire Center’s buildings (behind the RCA and Exxon buildings), as the new 51-story red limestone curtain-wall headquarters of McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, at 1222 Avenue of the Americas, that was opened in March 1972, four months after the opening of the Exxon.
    According with Stern (1997):

    “The Mc Graw-Hill Building, a joint undertaking of the publishing company and Rockefeller Center, Inc., was the second of the buildings to be announced. In 1965, McGraw-Hill had considered expanding its operation on Forty-second Street by building above a new bus facility proposed by the Port Authority for the west blockfront of Eight Avenue between Forty-first and Forty-second streets. But with the declining status of Forty-second Street, the company began to consider other locations, include the suburbs. Eventually, though, the lure of a location in Rockefeller Center became irresistible, and the company agreed to occupy the twenty building in the center complex. Mc Graw-Hill´s decision not the relocate to the suburbs was crucial to Mayor Lindsay’s efforts to bolster New York´s sagging economy and reassure the world and large of the city´s continuing importance. As plans for the building were announced in December 1967, Shelton Fisher, McGraw-Hill’s president, stressed the fact that it was the requirements of the company’s creative people that tipped the balance in the city’s favor: ‘Whatever their needs or inclinations, they can better satisfy them in New York than anywhere else. It’s true that New York has its problems. But we feel it has the strength, the permanence, and the compelling interest to overcome its difficulties that will keep the Number One city of the world’” (Stern. 1997. Pages 411-413).
    According with a 1969 article on Architectural Record:

    “In the initial stages of the project, Harrison & Abramovitz & Harris began design studies in conjunction with Rockefeller Center’s to create two new office towers on the west side of the Avenue of the Americas. Standard Oil of New Jersey was to occupy one of the towers between 49th to 50th Streets, but McGraw-Hill had no connection, at its point, with the companion structure between 48th to 49th.” (Staff. Designing an office building for a particular client and his needs. In Architectural Record Magazine. April 1969. Page 187).

    The Record continues:

    “The site had many advantages: The Sixth Avenue subway has entrances between 48th to 50th, and the Rockefeller Center’s complex itself has a unique system of underground pedestrian passageways linking all of its buildings. These concourse areas allow walking from building to building without interference from Manhattan traffic, and the new building is planned to link directly to them” (Architectural Record. April 1969. Fragment).

    The building had several problems during its design, between 1967 and 1968, these problems were caused by the McGraw-Hill specific needs. The Record´s article (1969) describes it:

    “Designs proceeded during 1967, as the architects established a preliminary schemes for the tower: height, number of floors, gross square footage, and dimensions were developed, structural design was completed in preliminary form, including column placement), and a facade treatment was created, making the building compatible with the remainder of the Rockefeller Center’s complex”. (Architectural Record. April 1969. Fragment).

    The magazine continues:

    “Some specific needs of McGraw-Hill were not readily fulfilled by the new Rockefeller Center tower, designed up to this point for an unknown tenant. For a example: a cafeteria would be necessary, along with several private dinning rooms and the kitchen facilities to serve them. A large commercial bookstore was needed at ground level. A 275-seat auditorium was required, with a column-free space which might require structural reframing at some location. Finally, it was hoped that all the office floors could be designed on a module, and a partition system created which would be interchangeable through all divisions. The Office of Albert Easton Poor was immediately retained by McGraw-Hill as the architect primarily concerned with its interiors for the new building, and directed to coordinate its efforts with Harrison & Abramovitz & Harris” (Architectural Record. April 1969. Fragment).

    Definitve model of the McGraw-Hill Building. January 1969.





    After of that the architects and decorators created the definitive solutions for the McGraw-Hill’s requirements for the new building, the final scheme of the building were announced in late 1968. While, the demolition works in the site of the new building were realized during the summer and fall of 1968. Finally, excavation started for the new McGraw-Hill Building in December 1968 and continuing until autumn 1969. The steel structure of the building begun to rises in December 1969 and continuing during all 1970. The 51-story steel skeleton for the new building were topped-out in early 1971 while works for the installation of the red-granite and glass curtain-wall façade were quickly. Finally, the building was completed in early 1972 and was dedicated in a ceremony in March 1972.

    The 1.8 million-square-foot, fifty-one-story, 645-foot-tall tower slab, also designed by Harrison, Abramovitz & Harris, the red-granite and glass curtain-wall occupied the blockfront on the west side of the Avenue of the Americas between 48th to 49th Streets, a 100,000 square foot site that extended approximately 500 feet toward Seventh Avenue.

    The tower “was set back 117 feet from Sixth Avenue to provide space for a plaza, sunk twelve feet below grade; off the plaza was a operate bookstore. A 152-seat planetarium originally planned for the plaza was abandoned when McGraw-Hill sold the company that was to run it. In its place a theater was build to house the multiscreen slide presentation The New York Experience, which it opened in 1973, was a first of a series of paeans to the city that poured forth in the 1970s and early 1980s as municipal fortunes ebbed and them began to flow again. The principal featured of the plaza was Athelstan Spilhau’s styainless-steel-clad sculpture, Sun Triangle, which described the relationship between sun and earth and equinoxes. Wags interpreted the triangular sculpture rather differently –as an arrow pointing to the McGraw-Hill’s bookstore” (Stern. 1997. Page 413).

    Night view of Midtown Manhattan looking north from Empire State Building. January 1971. The Exxon and McGraw-Hill Buildings under construction can appear on the left.


    Night view of the Sixth Avenue skyscrapers from Empire State Building. The Exxon and McGraw-Hill buildings under construction can see in bacground, at right, behind the J.P. Stevens Building. April 1971.




    Another night view of the Exxon and McGraw-Hill under construction (center) from Empire State. April 1971.




    Construction of the Exxon and McGraw-Hill buildings. view from Hudson River looking east. May 1971.





    The McGraw-Hill Building (left) looking west from Fifth Avenue. March 1972.



    Putting of the sculpture Sun Triangle on the McGraw-Hill's plaza. February 1973.




    Stern says about the McGraw-Hill Building’s exterior:
    “The exterior envelope of the McGraw-Hill Building, with its neutral, vertically striped window-wall system, was less than distinguished” (Stern. 1997. Fragment).

    Night view of the Exxon and McGraw-Hill buildings from the Empire State Building. October 1972.




    The McGraw-Hill and Exxon buildings. View looking north. May 1973. Photo: Ezra Stoller.




    The Exxon Building Plaza, looking northeast showing Radio City Music Hall. May 1973







    Aerial view of the Exxon and McGraw-Hill Building from RCA Building. May 1973.






    Next, a 1972 special of One Astor Plaza.


    If you have a commentary or want to put a picture about the history of New York skyscrapers, please, show in this post.
    Last edited by erickchristian; June 27th, 2010 at 03:04 PM.

  10. #190

    Default Manhattan 1970s

    1972 Special

    The One Astor Plaza




    A Postmodernist Pioneer



    Hi, friends!!! We’re back again with this travel through the history of New York skyscrapers. Now, continuing our trip trough early 1970’s we are introduced fully in 1972 with this special dedicated to the One Astor Plaza (now under renovation) at 1515 Broadway in the heart of Times Square. Also know as W.T. Grant Building in the 1970’s and Viacom Building, the 54-story, dark-green-blue-tinted One Astor Plaza tower was considerer a skyscraper that introduces the postmodernism canons in the New York’s architecture, because its four-picked limestone crown broke the formalism of the building’s International Style Modernism’s canons.

    But the buildings were criticized because its construction means the sacrifice of a old early 20th Century icon: The Hotel Astor. The construction of the One Astor Plaza, on late 1960’s and early 1970’s were on the context of a first effort to revival Times Square as a new office building corridor to save of its urban decline as a site of delinquency, prostitution and pornography.


    The demolition of Hotel Astor.

    The history of the One Astor Plaza begun with the demolition of the legendary 10-story Hotel Astor (Clinton & Russell, 1904). One of the most greatest hotels, the Astor “had been a landmark of New York since its completion” (Stern, Robert A.M., Mellins, Thomas. Fishman, David. New York 1960. Architecture and urbanism between the Second World War and the Bicentennial. New York. The Monacelli Press. Second Edition. 1997. Page 443). The legendary hotel was closed in 1966 and receives great attention by the architectural specialist and preservationist. The demolition of the Hotel Astor was considered a great architectural loss in New York.


    Hotel Astor (Clinton & Rusell. 1904). View of the Hotel Astor and Times Square area in 1923.




    The last moments of the Hotel Astor (at right of Paramount Building). November 1966.





    Times Square’s urban decline.

    The demolition of the Hotel Astor to make way to One Astor Plaza was a result of the process of urban decline that affected Times Square during the 1960’s. The decline of Times Square was caused by many factors as the television impact in the entertainment industry, specially, in the movie and theater industry that result in the decline of the concurrency of movies and theaters. This was the causes of great theaters as the Paramount and Capitol were closed in 1966 and 1968, respect. Another theaters as New Amsterdam, Victory, Apollo and others, were survived, but other kind of marked were come: sex. The pornography marked was owned of old greatest movies around 42nd Street and the prostitution and delinquency problem were increased and for many years Times Square were considered the World’s porno capital.

    Another cause was the moving the Metropolitan Opera House to a new building in Lincoln Center, in 1966 and the demolition of its old theater one year after.

    Times Square. May 1969.





    The One Astor Plaza as prelude to Times Square’s Urban Renewal

    The design and construction of the One Astor Plaza, in the heart of Times Square, meaning the transformation of Times Square to a new office buildings district with the combination with new theater space. Since 1965 when the new look of the old Times Tower, now called the Allied Chemical Tower was open until 1970 three new office buildings were completed in Times Square area, between 39th to 57th Street and Broadway and Seventh Avenues: 42-story 1411 Broadway Building (1969, Irwin Chanin), 45-story 1700 Broadway Building (Emery Roth & Sons, 1968-69); and 44-story 810 Seventh Avenue Building (Emery Roth & Sons, 1970). During 1970 three more buildings were under construction: the 52-story Uris Plaza (Emery Roth & Sons), 50-story 888 Seventh Avenue Building (Emery Roth & Sons, completed in 1971) and the 54-story One Astor Plaza (Kahn & Jacobs). These new buildings were changing the face of Times Square as a effort to revitalizes the declined area as a new office building zone, under the context of the antiurban sentiment of the 1960’s and early 1970’s New York´s urban planners.

    According with Eric P. Nash (1999):

    “Built on the site of the old Astor Hotel and its celebrating bar, Astor Plaza epitomizes the antiurban sentiment of planners in the late 1960s. Rather than a congested, vital urban arena, Times Square, with some justification was seen as a seedy breeding ground of pornography and crime. The solution was to eradicate street life, and turn the neighborhood into a parched and untraversable desert like Oscar Niemeyer’s designs for the main state institutions in Brasilia, Brazil. Astor Plaza was the first building to exploit an easement of the 1961 Zoning Code that allowed developers to put up taller and bulkier than unusual buildings as an incentive to build new legitimate theaters in the ailing Theater District” (Nash, Eric P. Manhattan Skyscrapers. New York. Princeton Architectural Press. 1999. Page. 125).

    Robert A.M. Stern says that the construction of the One Astor Plaza “marked the dramatic acceleration in the shift from Times Square´s principal role as a nighttime world of entertainment to its hitherto secondary daytime role as an office building” (Stern. 1997. Page. 443).


    Conception and difficulties

    The One Astor Plaza was also knew as the W.T. Grant Building, and, according with Stern, “was the fulfillment of a development concept for the site that had been considered as early as 1947, when plans were announced to convert the hotel to offices for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer” (Stern. 1999. Page 443).

    According with stern (1997):

    “The city government’s struggle to convince the developers of One Astor Plaza to build a mixed-use office and theater facility was based on certain assumptions widely held at the time. In the mid 1960s, when talk of the Hotel Astor’s imminent demise was common, city planners were still not sensitive to the precarious future that New York’s entertainment industry faced. The prevailing notion in city hall was that the westward expansion of the midtown office-building district was a good thing for the city as a whole. Moreover, few people, even those who struggle to preserve the theater district, saw the existing theaters as inherently worth saving. Richard Weinstein, a cofounder of the Urban Design Group and key figure in the efforts the remaining Broadway theaters were ‘uncomfortable and obsolete’ and ‘not sufficient architectural distinction to qualify for retention as landmarks.’ For Weinstein and others, the area’s future lay in the construction of new office buildings that included theaters, which would make Times Square a round-the-clock neighborhood of both work of pleasure. One Astor Plaza seemed to represent the beginning of a trend toward office development in the theater district, which had lost forty-five theaters since its heyday in the 1920’s. In response to this perceived trend, the City Planning Commission, guided by its Urban Design Group, set out to develop special zoning provisions that would encourage developers working in the area to incorporate theaters in their new buildings, in return for which they would be granted bonuses in the form of additional leasable office area” (Stern. 1997. Page 444).

    He continues:

    “The process begun when the Minskoffs applied to the commission for a zoning change so that the Hotel Astor site could be used for an office building –a change that, given the location, the scale and the commercial nature of both enterprises, would normally have been given more of less routinely. The Minskoffs also sought a special permit to modestly penetrate the sky exposure plan so that they could get the kind of large floor plates they wanted for their tower floors. In return for these favors, in accord with the 1961 zoning resolution’s provisions, they initially proposed to provide a triangular, street-level public plaza, which they instructed their architects to locate inconspicuously to the side so that the building’s lucrative Broadway frontage could be maximized. In making these requests, the Minskoffs never suspected that they would become embroiled in a tug-of.war with city officials over Times Square’s future. Indeed, as would have happened if someone in the City Planning Department had no brought the applications to the attention of the newly formed Urban Design Group, whose somewhat vague mission was to maintain, as Weinstein put it, ‘the attractiveness of city sites’. Even then, things might have gone as the Minskoffs planned, had it not become known to the Urban Design Group that Mayor Lindsay, himself and avid the theatergoer, was concerned that an office-building boom might lead to the theater district’s destruction” (Stern. 1997. Fragment).

    He also continues:

    “Once they grasped the circumstances, the Urban Design Group saw an opportunity to trade with the Minskoffs for a better design and requested that a legitimate theater included as part of the project. The developers and their architects greeted the idea with derision, saying that the inclusion of a theater was technically and economically unfeasible. This contention was a least somewhat disingenuous, since Kahn & Jacobs had designed an unrealized mixed-use theater complex for an undisclosed site in the west fifties in 1953 at the behest of another client, Howard S. Cullman, a theatrical angel who was also chairman of the Port Authority. The real source of the Minskoffs’ objections was not, in all likelihood, the economics of this specific instance. Rather, they saw the Urban Design Group’s intrusion as a threat to the investments they had made in theater properties throughout Times Square in the expectation that the district would cease to exist as an entertainment center and that the theaters would be torn down to make way for much more lucrative office buildings. Treating the Urban Design Group as little more than a nuisance, the Minskoffs took their arguments to the City Planning Commission. When its chairman, Donald Elliott, made it clear that he supported the theater idea, they went over his head to the mayor, who not only backed up the chairman, the commission and the Urban Design Group but also used his considerable charm to persuade the developers to rethink their position in the interests of the city as a whole” (Stern. 1997. Fragment).

    He also continues:

    “The Minskoffs did so, returning with a proposal that included a theater located at the rear of the site and an office tower twice the size permitted under zoning. They also presenter their first, theater-less scheme as well as another scheme, described by Weinstein as ‘a mindless, ominous, faceless structure, legal under existing zoning, with two low, clawlike appendages (doubtless both of them would have been banks) pinching a small plaza between them’. According to Jonathan Barnett, another principal of the Urban Design Group, the meeting when the new scheme was presented was a ‘tough’ one, with the developers insisting that this proposal was their last word and that, even with the huge increase in floor area, it was only barely feasible. ‘I remember feeling very depressed as Donald Elliott and I took the elevator down from this meeting,’ Barnett recalled. ‘Donald, however, was elated. ‘Well,’ he said, ‘I think you guys have got your theater.’ I expressed doubt: it was impossible for the Planning Commission to grant anything like the floor area the developer was asking for. ‘Oh that,’ said Elliott, ‘that just shows they’re ready to negotiate’’” (Stern. 1997. Fragment).

    Stern also continues:

    “In the end, the Miskoffs included a theater in the front of their building, a 20 percent bonus of floor area was negotiated, and a special zoning district was created to permit similar bonuses for new office buildings between Fortieth and Fifty-seventh streets, Sixth and Eight avenues, that incorporated theaters. Elliott hopes for the new district zoning were high” (Stern, 1997. Pages 444-445). The new zoning was passed in 1967.


    Scheme of the One Astor Plaza's base. 1968. Picture: Kris. Wired New York's Forum One Astor Plaza. City Grit.





    The Construction

    The construction of the One Astor Plaza begun with the demolition of the Hotel Astor, between the spring and autumn of 1967 and during few months of 1968 the site was cleared and used for a ephemeral parking lot, groundbreaking was officially stared by Mayor John V. Lindsay in October 1968. Stern says that “not merely celebrating the construction of a new partnership between the public and private sectors to achieve desired planning goals for which public funds were unavailable. In addition they believed they were celebrating a new era of economic stability for Times Square as an entertainment center. The celebration, growing out of a heady mixture f high ideals and bottom-line economics, did not prove long-lasting, and Times Square somehow seemed all the more tawdry for its overscaled, underembellished corporate guest. And unfortunately, although the new Special Theater District Zoning Amendment, drafted by planners who believed that new office buildings in the district were both inevitable and desirable, did encourage the construction of new legitimate theaters, it made no provision for the preservation of existing theaters” (Stern. 1997. Page 445).

    Construction of the building was continuing during 1969. The steel structure of the building begun to rises up in autumn 1969 and the tower surpassed its neighbor Paramount Building in April 1970. The mean steel structure of the tower was completed in July, 1970 and works begun for the crown on the top of the building. The 54-story tower withy its crown were topped-out in late August 1970. The installation of the base begun in April of 1970. The façade were begun to cover the tower’s structure since May 1970. By February 1971 the tower’s dark-green-blue glass curtain-wall façade were complete and works continued for the crown and the base. The building’s exterior were completed in December 1971 and the building, included the Minskoff Theatre were officially dedicated by Mayor Lindsay in February 1972.


    Aerial view of Midtown Manhattan looking north: June 1970. The One Astor Plaza under construction appera on left, at background.




    The One Astor Plaza (left) under construction. View from Empire State Building. June 1970. Photo: 762_AK. Flickr.com. Link: http://www.flickr.com/photos/762_photo/2929097599/




    The steel skeleton of One Astor Plaza under construction on July of 1970, when the structure was topped-out and its crown-shaped crown was beind installed.




    Night view of the One Astor Plaza under construction. View from Empire State. April 1971





    The building under construction. View from Hudson River. May 1971.






    The One Astor Plaza tower were complete. December 1971.





    The Tower and its postmodern crown: Der Scutt’s design.

    According with Stern:

    The 1.4. million-square-foot, fifty-four-story office tower, largely sheathed in glass, was set atop the base containing the Minskoff Theatre and was placed 135 feet back from Broadway. It was entered at the two Broadway corners, were escalators lifted officegoers up past the theater’s edges to the second-floor-level lobby as the rear of the site. Der Scutt, Kahn & Jacobs’s lead designer for the project, had studied and worked with Paul Rudolph, whose sculptural approach he admired. Scutt attempted to give the building presence and sculptural force by expressing the mechanical shafts as if they were sperscaled pylons. Clad in granite and set in quarter points of each facade, they established a syncopated rhythm that suggested a pinwheel pattern, which was emphasized by the fact that the shafts were extended above the bulky tower to break the flat skyline as wedge-sculptural planes. For C.Ray Smith, this gesture by altering the historic center-peaked crowning features of earlier skyscrapers, symbolized the ‘new design’ spirit of the 1970s, with its ironic, mannerist sensibility” (Stern. 1997. Pages 443-444).

    According with Eric P. Nash (1999):

    “The 54-story building seems to be assembled from pieces of other buildings: Der Scutt was one of the first architects to employ that kind of pastiche. Flaring limestone pylons stick out from the sides of the tower, sheathed in black glass superimposed with sectional aluminum mullions. Oddly projecting glass bays at corners anticipated Der Scutt’s experiments with the glass curtain in such later buildings as Trump Tower (1984). With a budding postmodernist’s sense for sleight of hand, the blank mass of the Astor Plaza movie theater on West 44th Street is revealed from another angle as a thin façade, because its wall projects beyond the cornice” (Nash. 1999. Page 125)

    Nash says about the tower’s crown top:

    “One Astor Plaza’s tower, a sharply angled limestone crown by Der Scutt, the lead architect for the project of Kahn & Jacobs, is a significant precursor of postmodernist movement away from structural expression and toward symbolism for its own sake. By placing a nonfunctional crown –and a stone one a that- atop a glass building, Der Scutt was beginning to undermine basic Internationalist assumptions such as a ban on applied symbolism. The spiky crown was even more affronting in 1972 when it featured the giant orange logo of the W. T. Grant five-and-dime chain” (Nash. 1999. Fragment).

    The One Astor Plaza (Kahn & Jacobs. 1972). 1515 Broadway. View from 1133 Sixth Avenue Building looking west. July 1972. Photo: Norman McGrath. ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. December 1972.




    A detail of the facade. The Paramount Building appear on foreground. May 1973.



    View from Shubert Alley. From Skyscrapercity.com






    The limestone crown of the One Astor Plaza as seen from RCA Building. 2009. Photo from: hoveringcheesecake . Flickr.com. Link: http://www.flickr.com/photos/34471641@N07/3857017536/





    The Minskoff Theatre

    According with Stern:

    “Kahn & Jacobs’s design for the site, the first building to be realized under the new zoning district, included the 1,621-seat Minskoff Theater, suitable for large-scale theatrical presentations such as musicals. The Minskoff, named for the building’s developers, was built above a ground floor that contained shops facing Times Square and a covered arcade well to the west, which connected Forty-fourth and Forty-fifth streets. The musical theater was entered from this arcade; a second, 1,500-seat movie theater, located in the building’s basement, hade a separate entrance on Forty-fourth street. Originally intended for the roof of the musical theatre was a restaurant overlooking Times Square; although this was never built, a restaurant on street lever, located at the western end of the site, where the new building backed up onto Shubert Alley, was built. At one point in the design process, Shubert Alley was intended to be redesigned as a glazed galleria” (Stern. 1997. Page 443).

    Stern continues:

    The construction of the One Astor Plaza “proved highly complex: the juxtaposition of an office building with a theater was technically demanding. As Thomas Connolly, the Bethlehem Company’s supervising engineer in charge of the building’s structural steel, explained: ‘Without that theater, this building would have been a snap from a engineering point of view. With this theater, it’s become a humdinger of an engineering feat. This building has the largest beam, the largest truss and the heaviest girder of any building in New York.’ To accommodate the theater in its base, the supporting structure of the building’s east façade had to be supported by the roof of the theater wing, necessitating the construction of two massive gilders carrying a Vierender truss. Despite the complex structural engineering, the final product was decidedly uninteresting. The musical theatre proved too large for most shows and very costly to operate. In addition, its bland, detail-less design failed to spark the imagination of theatergoers. Viewed from Broadway, the theater’s lobby –a cavernous glass box lifted above street-level shops- was the building’s principal feature. Although it was illuminated at night, it came to life only during the short periods when theatergoers filled the space” (Stern. 1999. Page 444).


    The One Astor Plaza as the W.T Grant Building. May 1973.





    View of the One Astor Plaza and other Times Square skyscrapers from the Empire State Building. July 1973.




    Next, a general review of 1972.


    If you have a commentary or want to put a picture about the history of New York skyscrapers, please, show in this post.
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  11. #191

    Default Manhattan 1970s

    In August 2010

    You will know the history of a unforguetable icon.

    A great tribute:




    THE WORLD TRADE CENTER (1973-2001)

    A 1973 Special

    Comming soon


  12. #192

    Default Manhattan 1970s

    1972

    Hi, Friends!! We're back to this travel through the history of New York skyscrapers. Now, continuing with the city of the 1970's I show a general panorama of the city's skyscrapers during 1972. The year that the Watergate scandal was appear.

    In 1972 the Olympic Games again covered with blood with a palestine terrorist attack against the Munich Olimpic Village causing the dead of more of 11 Israelli athletes.

    The Watergate scandal begun with the detention of five men who penetrated the Democratic Party office on Watergate Building in Washington and who were support by Nixon's goverment and the details of the invation were covered by Washington Post's reporters Robert Woodward and Carl Bernstein, duringt the rest of the year research have to take shape to one of the worst political scandals of the history of the United States.

    1972 is the year of the porno success "Deep Throat". The name of this picture was linked with the nickname of the FBI formed employer who, in secret, revealed to the Post reporters the details of the spy activities of the Nixon's Relection Comitee.

    In 1972 many people wear bell bottoms and rises up with platform shoes.

    In New York, 1972 was a year that many office buildings were completed, but the office building construction were begun to affected by the office workers and companies exodus to the suburbs and the city's fiscal crisis.




    Many office buildings were completed in 1972:
    • 51-story new McGraw-Hill Headquarters Building (Building "Y") in Rockefeller Center.
    • 54-story One Astor Plaza at 1515 Broadway.
    • 33-story 127 John Street Building.
    • 44-story North America Plywood Building.
    • 40-story Harper & Row Building.
    • 44-story Two New York Plaza (the building were complete since spring 1971, but it was opened until spring 1972).


    While, many office buildings continuing under construction
    • 110-story World Trade Center Twin Towers (both buildings were nearing completion). In 1972, the towers had officially become the World Tallest Buildings, ending the 41-year domination of the Empire State Building.
    • 55-story One Liberty Plaza (nearing completion).
    • 55-story 55 Water Street complex.
    • 52-story W.R. Grace Building.
    • 55-story Uris Plaza at Broadway between West 50th to 51st Streets (the building's exterior were completed in autumn 1972).
    • 52-story 9 West 57th Street (Solow) Building.
    • 40-story New York Telephone Building. Bryant Park office building.
    • 52-story Dag Hammaskjord Plaza.
    • 30-story 88 Pine Street Building.
    • 57-story One Penn Plaza Building.
    • 46-story Blue Cross Building.
    • 45-story Celanesse Building (Building "Z") in Rockefeller Center (the building begun to rises up on spring 1972).
    • 48-story 1166 Sixth Avenue Building (the building begun to rises up in early 1972).
    • 33-story 1500 Broadway Building.
    • 36-story Squibb Building on 57th Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues.
    Now, a general panorama of 1972.

    Sunset view of Midtown Manhattan looking east from Hudson River. February 1972. Photo: National Geographic Magazine. Photo 1 of 2.




    Photo 2 of 2.




    Aerial view of Manhattan island looking northwest from Brooklyn. March 1972.




    New skyscrapers on the Financial District from East River. March 1972. The building under construction on the right is the new 55-story 55 Water Street Building.




    Lower Manhattan skyline and Brooklyn Bridge from East River. March 1972.




    New Lower Manhattan skyline looking north from Staten Island ferry, showing the new 110-story Twin Towers of the World Trade Center under construction. March 1972.




    The old Rockefeller Center's Maisson Francaise with the new 51-story Rockefeller Center's McGraw-Hill Building (left on background). March 1972.




    Aerial view of the Upper East Side skyline looking northeast from East River, showing the Welfare Island. March 1972.




    Aerial view of Lower Manhattan's Financial District skyline looking northeast showing the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center under construction on left. April 1972.




    Aerial view of Brooklyn Harbor with the Manhattan Island new skyline dominated by the new Twin Towers of the WTC on the distance. April 1972. Photo: National Geographic Magazine.




    Aerial view of Midtown Manhattan skyscrapers looking southwest. The building under construction that covered the Chrysler Building (center) is the Dag Hammaskjörd Plaza. The Empire State Building dominated the panorama. April 1972.




    Lower Manhattan skyline and the Brooklyn and Manhattan bridges from East River. April 1972.




    Aerial view of Lower Manhattan skyline looking west from East River. April 1972.




    Midtown MAnhattan looking west from East River, showing the United Nations headquarters buildings. April 1972.




    The new 33-story 127 John Street Building (Emery Roth & Sons). May 1972. Photo: Lieberman.




    Aerial view of the new World Tallest Buildings: the 110 story World Trade Center Twin Towers under construction looking south. The North Tower and the two low-rise buildings were nearing completion. May 1972.




    Aerial view of Lower Manhattan's new skyline looking northeast. June 1972.




    Aerial view of the new 110-story Twin Towers of the World Trade Center under construction looking east. The old Woolworth Building can see on the left of North Tower. The new 55-story One Liberty Plaza can see on the right of South Tower. June 1972.




    Night view of the Lower Manhattan skyscrapers looking northwest showing Midtown Manhattan on the background. July 1972. Photo: National Geographic.





    The new 54-story One Astor Plaza (Kahn & Jacobs), looking west from 1133 Sixth Avenue Building. The building under construction on left, on foreground, is the 33-story 1500 Broadway Building. July 1972. Photo: Norman McGrath. ARCHITECTURAL RECORD MAGAZINE.





    Impressive view of the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center nearing completion from its plaza. August 1972.




    Night view of Times Square. View looking north. September 1972.




    The new 32-story I.M Pei's 88 Pine Street Building on Lower Manhattan's Financial District nearing completion. View from Brookllyn Heights. October 1972. In the bacground, at right is the One Liberty Plaza while its facade is painting of black.




    Aerial view of the new Midtown Manhattan skyline looking south from Central Park. The building under construction of left, above Plaza Hotel is the new 52-story Solow Building (9 West 57th Street). The Empire State Building, WTC Towers and RCA Building (center, at background) dominating the panorama. October 1972. Photo: TIME & LIFE.




    Night view of the new Sixth Avenue skyscrapers looking northwest from Empire State Building. October 1972. From left to right is: 55-story Uris Plaza, on Times Square, the 40-story New York Telephone Building (nearing completion); 1133 Avenue of the Americas Building, 810 Seventh Avenue Building; J.P. Stevens Building and the steel skeleton to Celanesse Building; the new 51-story McGraw-Hill and 54-story Exxon Building on Rockefeller Center; the steel skeleton of the 1166 Avenue of the Americas Building under construction and the new 52-story Grace Building (nearing completion); above it the Time & Life Building, Equitable, J.C Penney, New York Hilton and Burlington House Buildings.




    Aerial view of the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center nearing completion looking east. October 1972.





    Next, the 1972-73 special to Uris Plaza.





    IF YOU HAVE A COMMENTARY OR HAVE A PICTURE OF NEW YORK CITY'S SKYSCRAPER HISTORY, YOU CAN SHOW IT IN THIS THREAD.

    THANK YOU
    Last edited by erickchristian; August 23rd, 2010 at 01:39 AM.

  13. #193

    Default Manhattan 1970s

    In August 2010

    a 1973 special that dedicated to a lost icon of our times

    The World Trade Center


    a History

    coming soon.....


  14. #194

    Default Manhattan 1970s

    1972-1973 special

    the uris building (1633 broadway or paramount plaza)


    the great gig of times square

    Hi, friends!!, Welcome back on this trip through the history of the skyscraper’s world capital: New York. On this week, continuing with this travel in the 1970’s with this 1972-1973 special of the most monumental skyscraper of Times Square area: The 50-story Uris Building at 1633 Broadway, that was designed by Emery Roth & Sons and it was completed in early 1972, but it was opened until late 1972 or early 1973.

    Located in the west side of Broadway, between Fiftieth and Fifty-first streets, the Uris Building (now it is know as the Paramount Plaza) was the tallest skyscraper of Times Square only behind of the new 54-story One Astor Plaza, but in office spaces it was the greatest building in the Theater District. It consist in a great monolithic 50-story and 2,240,000-square foot behemoth “rose as a sheer tower clad in dark gray glass and separated from Broadway by a sunken plaza” (Stern, Robert A.M., Mellins, Thomas., Fishman, David. New York 1960. Architecture and Urbanism Between the Second World War and the Bicentennial. New York. The Monacelli Press. 1997. Page 445). At additional date, it was the last of a big dark-gray-glass curtain-wall serie of supertowers that was build by the Roths in all Midtown Manhattan that begun in 1960 with the 33-story Pfizer Building and include other building like Burroughs Building in the Third Avenue and East 39th Street (1963), 299 Park Avenue Building (1967) and Burlington House Building, in 1345 Avenue of the Americas (1969).

    The Uris Plaza was conceived as a great speculative project by the Uris Brother, in 1968, as a part to revitalize Times Square when the new zonning ordinance moddifications of 1967 permit the construction of office building in the Theater District with a conditional to incorporing new theater facillities in a some part of the new building. The building was build in the same time with the new One Astor Plaza, but the construction of the new Uris Building meaning the sacrifice a old and legendary Times Square’s icon: the Capitol Theatre.

    Tower construction

    Construction of the Uris Building begun on late 1968 with the demolition of the old Capitol Theater. Excavation works begun in early 1969 and continuing during the year. Construction work for the steel structure of the building begun before Christmas of 1969 and in the spring of 1970 the steel skeleton begun to rises up surpased the old Theatre District buidgings. The 50-story building’s steel skeleton was topped out in February 1971 while the facade was begun to installed. The building’s black-gray glass-curtain-wall facade were completed in early 1972. The building were completed in the spring of these year, but it was not opened until late 1972 or early 1973.

    Construction progress of the Uris Building (first building at left) in May 1971. View from the Hudson River.




    Sunset view of the Midtown Manhattan looking west from Hudson River, showing the Uris Building nearby completion (extreme right). February 1972. Photo: National Geographic Magazine.




    After the death of his brother, Harold Uris sold Uris Building Corp, including this building, to the National Kinney Corporation which in 1974 faced with 30 percent vacancy rates took the building into bankruptcy before it was taken over by the Paramount Investment Group. Paramount renamed the building with the actual name (from Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paramount_Plaza).

    Building caractheristics

    According with Emporis.com:

    “The facade of dark gray glass is accentuated by narrow striping and topped by a row of openings at the top” (http://www.emporis.com/application/?...orkcity-ny-usa).

    According with Stern (1997):

    “In 1968 the city’s first great movie palace, Thomas Lamb’s Capitol Theatre (1919), fell to the wrecker’s ball to make way for Emery Roth & Sons’ Uris Building, at 1613 Broadway. On the west blockfront of Broadway, between Fiftieth and Fifty-first street and extending 450 feet toward Eight Avenue (…). Two theaters were located behind the tower: the huge 1,933-seat Uris Teather, intended for musicals, and the 650-sat Circle in the Square Theater. The Uris, designed by Ralph Alswang, had as its principal feature its size,a quality that was also as a disavantage. The Circle in the Square-Joseph E. Levine Theater (its official name), designed by Robert Allan Sayles along the lines of its predecessor in Greenwich Village, also received little praise” (Stern. 1997. Pages 445-446).

    The Uris Building at 1633 Broadway (now known as Paramount Plaza. Emery Roth & Sons). May 1973.




    Next, a 1973 special of the World Trade Center.


    your opinion are very important!!!

    if you have a opinion about my thread or you want to put a picture of new york city's skyscraper history, please, show here!!!!!

  15. #195

    Default Manhattan 1970s

    1973 special


    the world trade center (1973-2001):
    a tribute

    chapter 1

    the rise of the twin towers (1966-1973)

    part 1


    the development


    Hi, friends, We’re back again with this travel through the history of the New York City skyscrapers during the 20th. Century. Continuing with the 1970’s trip, we are begun the year of 1973, with the history of the New York most greatest architectural losses of they history: the history of the unforgettable Twin Towers of the World Trade Center.

    The Twin Towers was a icon that symbolizes the power of New York City as a World’s Financial capital, a global neoliberal stage of world capitalism, and a one of the most remembered skyscrapers that ever built of the man (only behind the Empire State Building). The towers was monolithic, monumental, that reduces to surrounding skyscrapers, include the Empire State Building, to a insignificant size. Early, the towers was one of the most hated skyscrapers by many architectural critics, specialist and New Yorkers, but for a many more New Yorkers and all the world, the Twin Towers was loved, and they be turned the gigantic building a another references in the City’s tourist attractive, and a another Pop culture icon, capture the inspiration of artist, movie makers, adventurers and the greatest machine of the mass media.

    The development of the World Trade Center was a architectural, social and political battle that affronting the city’s public needs with the powerful financial interest, the development of the towers meaning too the lowest levels to fell the city’s urban renewal project to demolish a entire neighborhood to served to the money interests that involved the Rockefeller family’s interest to developed a great enterprises to renewed Lower Manhattan’s Financial District.

    Today, when a more a month before of the 9th anniversary of the September 11th, 2001 attacks, I show a very personal tribute to this sensational 110-story building that dominated the New York Skyline during 30 years after this tragic end. This tribute is a complete and epic history of these skyscrapers that begun in late 1940’s when the New York Port Authority proposed for creating a new trade and port facilities for redevelopment Lower Manhattan Financial District, and continuing in the 1960’s withy the development of the new World Trade Center and the construction of the towers between August 5th 1966 and its dedication in April 4th, 1973, its rises as a global capitalism icon, and ending with its tragic destruction in September 11th, 2001.

    Now, I show the first part of the first of three chapters about the rises of fall of the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center. Now, begun this history with the development of the gigantic complex that begun since the late 1940’s and ending with the demolition works on the Center’s sites begun, in August 5th, 1966.

    A idea for a new World Trade Center for the New York Port Authority

    The epic history of the World Trade Center begun immediately, after the ending of World War II when the New York Port Authority were public its intentions to expand its operations, in a context a recovery of financial prosperity of American economy. Trade and passenger transport activities of the New York port were increased than ever more since the Depression and experimented a continuing grow with the incorporation a new markets, like Asia and a Europe that begun to recovery of the destruction of the war and needs to reactivation its trade operations.

    In 1946, the Port Authority begun to take shape a idea of a World Trade Center in the heart of the New York Port (the southern end of Manhattan Island, in the Financial District), that received a increasing world market. “(…) in 1946 the New York State Legislature created the World Trade Center Corporation to examine the feasibility of creating such a facility for New York City” (Stern, Robert A.M., Mellins, Thomas., Fishman, David. New York 1960. Architecture and Urbanism Between the Second World War and the Bicentennial. New York. The Monacelli Press. 1997. Page 198). But the idea for build a new global trade center, really, was not crystallize until the late 1950’s, specially, since 1958, when it “became a pet project of David Rockefeller, who described it to a New Yorker reporter in 1960 as ‘the hottest thing I’m involved in at the moment’” (Stern. 1997. Fragment).

    At the time as the World Trade Center’s idea was taking shape, the New York Port Authority was developed many projects that manifest its intentions to expand its operations, creating a great transport and communication infrastructure to satisfies its worldwide needs: in 1947 was support the construction with the New Jersey government to the Newark Airport and one year after, the Idlewild International Airport (since 1963 as know as the John F. Kennedy International Airport), opposite Jamaica Bay, in Queens was completed. In 1950 the Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel were completed and one year after the new Port Authority Bus Terminal begun its operations. Later, in 1960 and 1961 expansions works were made for the George Washington Bridge, that includes the construction of a new bus terminal and housing facilities on the Upper Manhattan shoreline. In 1959 construction works begun for the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge that connect Staten Island with the other New York City’s districts and when it was completed in 1964, connect the city with the National Highway System.

    Skidmore, Owings & Merril’s proposal
    In January 1960, the Center begun to take shape when the Downtown-Lower Manhattan Association with the support by Rockefeller, unveiled the World Trade Center, in the East Side shoreline. It called for “a combination office anod hotel building up to seventy stories high, which would be built along the East River next to the present-day South Street Seaport, just north of the city’s Financial District” (Harris, Bill. The World Trade Center. A Tribute. Philladelphia. Courage Books. 2001. Page 32).

    According with journalist, Bill Harris:

    “Along with a six-story building intended to house a world trade mart, exhibition space, and a new home for the New York Stock Exchange, the tower would sit on top of a three-story base, which would include a shopping arcade with restaurants and theaters. The roof of the platform would provide a riverside promenade” (Harris. 2001. Page 34).

    According with Stern, all of these facilities:

    “(…) would sit on a three story podium that would virtually fill a 13.5-acre site along the East River bounded by Old Slip, Fulton, Water and South streets. The platform’s roof would provide a promenade with views over the river; inside, the podium would include a five-block-long arcade lined with shops, restaurants and a theater. The office components were depicted as uniformly gridded planted 600-by-400-foot enclosed five-level concourse provided some suggestion of human scale. The report said that it believed planning assistance from the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey would be forthcoming. Preliminary concepts for the development were prepared by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill under Edward James Matthews’s direction. To the north of the site lay the Brooklyn Bridge Southwest project. Initially announced in conjunction with the start of the Chase bank building, this project was to supply 21,000 units of housing in the expectation that the entire site of Lower Manhattan, with its hundred-year-old houses and warehouses, having served recently as marginal office and storage space but now largely unoccupied and considered derelict by planners would be replaced by a new twenty-four-hour community” (Stern. 1997. Page 198).

    First scheme for the World Trade Center on East River waterfront. January 1960.


    In 1961, the Port Authority prepared an own report about the World Trade Center project. This report was accompanied by “a comprehensive design devised by the architect Richard M. Adler, a principal in the firm of Brodsky, Hopf & Adler, working with a board of architects consisting of Gordon Bunshaft, Wallace K. Harrison and Edward Durell Stone. The design called for a five-story concourse surmounted by four buildings, including the seventy-two-story World Commerce Exchange, housing a 350-room hotel as well as extensive office and exhibition space, the thirty-story World Trade Mart, and the twenty-story Trade Center Building, which was to be raised on fifty-foot-high columns defining an entrance colonnade. All three buildings were to be, at least according to the preliminary model, rather typically articulated Modernists slabs. The fourth building was to be an eighty-story truncated cone housing the New York Stock Exchange” (Stern. 1997. Pages 198 and 200).

    A model of the Port Authority proposal for the World Trade Center. 1961.



    The Port Authority's World Trade Center proposal. Section perspective of view of the south. 1961.


    Moving to the West Side

    In March 1962, when the Center was to be a project by the Port Authority its site was moved to the west side. According with Harris:

    “The Port Authority had in the meantime agreed to take over the operation of the bankrupt Hudson & Manhattan Railroad, a rapid transit line connecting New York and New Jersey. It was a move made necessary by reluctance on the part of the State of New Jersey to support the World Trade Center project, and its concern that the agency it co-sponsored with New York State was putting all its eggs into one basket for the primary benefit of New York City. The railroad’s main terminal and office building, and twin office towers at 50 and 30 Church Street, were the largest office buildings in the world when they were built in 1908. They were major downtown landmarks, but more valuable now for the land under them that would become, in large part, the site of the new project” (Harris. 2001. Page 36).

    Aerial view of Lower Manhattan looking southeast showing the zone on West Side that designated for the new World Trade Center that know as "Radio Row". 1962.


    The Radio Row

    The new site for the World Trade Center project was located in the 16-acre site between Liberty to Vesey Streets, from north and south; and West and Church streets from west to east, was the site of old slum tenement buildings and contain two of the Manhattan’s first skyscrapers: the twin-towered Hudson Terminal Buildings (1908). The site was called the “Radio Row” because in this site there were many radio and electronic furniture shops.

    According with the web site of the National Public Radio, in the Ben Shapiro’s article called, “Radio Row, The Neighborhood Before The World Trade Center” (2002) :
    “When City Radio opened on New York City's Cortlandt Street in 1921, radio was a novelty. Over the next few decades, hundreds of stores popped up in the neighborhood: Metro Radio, Blan the Radio Man, Leotone Radio, Cantor the Cabinet King. The six-square-block area in lower Manhattan became a bazaar of tubes, knobs, hi-fi equipment and antenna kits. It was the largest collection of radio and electronics stores in the world” (Shapiro’s ben. ‘Radio Row’ The neighborhood before the World Trade Center. © 2002. National Public Radio. Link: http://www.npr.org/programs/lnfsound/stories/020603.radiorow.html).

    In other Internet article, Syd Steinhardt (2002) wrote:

    “Radio Row had been the hub of the electronics industry in New York since the 1920s. When it died, its remnants scattered to other areas of Manhattan, another unique slice of New York's heritage perished, too. People came from everywhere to buy electronics (there)," said Vickie Ploscowe. As a young woman, Ploscowe would accompany her father, window designer Manny Barsky, on his neighborhood rounds. "All the guys selling knew what they were talking about." (Steinhardt, Syd. The Death of New York’s Radio Row. © 2002. Antique Radio Classified. Link: http://www.antiqueradio.com/Sep02_RadioRow_Steinhardt.html).

    He continues:

    "Radio Row's popularity peaked in the 1950s. Its proximity to the New Jersey ferry docks and the financial district, combined with the advent of new consumer electronics goods and postwar demand, attracted floods of shoppers to the area every day except Sunday. To service their customers, stores opened at 7:00 a.m. on weekdays and closed late on Saturdays. Familiarity and loyalty served as cornerstones for the success of many of the stores. ‘An employee worked for his boss for 20 years,’ said Herb Simonoff, who managed Leonard Radio at 65 Cortlandt St. ‘Our men were technically-oriented, not just clerks’" (Steinhardt. 2002. Fragment).

    He continues:

    “Radio Row was not a neat and pretty sight. Block upon block over 300 street level stores, with over three times as many enterprises in the floors above them were jammed into 20- to 25-foot storefronts, up and down streets such as Albany, Carlisle, Greenwich and Liberty. Their shelves and floor spaces were packed with vacuum tubes, condensers, transistors and other high-tech bric-a-brac for ham radio enthusiasts and do-it-yourselfers. It was, as the New York Times called it in 1950, ‘a paradise for electronic tinkerers.’ Storefront windows were crammed with goods from top to bottom. Every product bore a card that listed its name, serial number, manufacturer and price. Most of these cards were hand-painted in red and orange tempera and India ink by Mannie Barsky. The postwar boom brought consumer electronics such as stereos, big television sets, portable shortwave radios and the latest hi-fi equipment into the stores. Surplus electronic material, hoarded by the government during the war years for communications, was added to some inventories and sold at what one former customer called ‘junk prices.’ Audiophiles flocked to the area to find that one needed part or that latest gadget. The narrow streets of lower New York were dense with pedestrians and the huge cars of the era vying for space. Some entrepreneurs added to the crush by displaying their wares on the street”. (Steinhardt. 2002. Fragment).

    It was the popularity of the Radio Row. It was the site was choice for the World Trade Center.

    Radio Row's daily life. 1936. Photo: Berenice Abbott



    Minoru Yamasaki

    In October 1962, after several months after to find a architect who designed a new plan for the World Trade Center in its new site designated it, after a competition that included many superstars as Gordon Bunshaft, Edward Durell Stone, Wallace K. Harrison, Phillip Johnson and I.M. Pei, the Port Authority commissioned to a team, consisting by thye Michigan-bassed architect Minoru Yamasaki and Emery Roth & Sons the challenger to designed a new plan for the new complex.

    Yamasaki, was a son of Japanese immigrants, was born in Seattle, Washington in 1912 and he was graduated in the University of Washington and the New York University and in his early professional years, he work in the architects firm of Shreve, Lamb & Harmon, and after, he was moved to Detroit where designed many low-rises office buildings, until in the late 1950’s and early 1960’s his fame begun to rises with his first many important building: a 30-story skyscraper in Detroit’s Downtown, the Education Center at Wayne State University in Detroit, the IBM Building in Seattle and his works with the Federal Service Pavilion on the 1962 World Fair, in Seattle.

    The election of Yamasaki, was controversial, and hoped, according with Robert A.M. Stern:

    “At the peak of his career, fresh from the popular and critical triumph of his Federal Service Pavilion at the Seattle World’s Fair (1962). Yamasaki was well know for what Ada Louise Huxtable described as an ‘experimental architecture (that) goes beyond conventional standars to explore a more adventurous and evocative world (Xanadu and Shalimar) for a border, richer and more ornamental contemporary architecture.’ Huxtable had high hopes that the World Trade Center would be ‘one of the loveliest buildings of our time,’ and she conclude: ‘One thing is certain: this large and important group of structures will be unlike anything that New York had ever seen before’” (Stern. 1997. Page 200).

    His resumé was appealed to, Austin J. Tobin, the New York Port Authority’s chairman, because, according with Bill Harris “he was far remove from the prima donna image most architects cultivated. He was also well-know for his record of sublimating his own ego and designing building exactly the way the client wanted him. Such self-effacement precisely matched the persona of the Port Authority itself. Its reputation had been built over the years by its commissioners’ ability to rise above personalities and politics in the name of unselfish public service. It was also plus that he had designed the award-winning Municipal Terminal at the San Louis Airport, the kind of project a man like Austin Tobin could easily relate to” (Harris. 2001. Page 38).

    Architect Minoru Yamasaki (1912-1986). 1962


    The Twin Towers were born
    Shortly after of his designation, Yamasaki begun to work on the design of the World Trade Center, that meaning for him, a challenger, overall, during 1963:

    “The program he had originally been given by the Port Authority called for building twelve million square feet (1.1. million m2) of usable space on a sixteen-acre (6.5 ha) site. He would also have to come up with a plan to accommodate the city subways and the PATH rail connection to New Jersey that ran deep underground into tubes under the Hudson River. The challenger was compounded by a relatively low budget of $500 million” (Harris. 2001. Page 45).

    According with Harris:

    “After studying models of more than a hundred different plans that might solve the problem, it was obvious that he needed to create a high-rise development. Among his first design was a single 150-story tower, which he rejected early on because would be oppressive” (Harris. 2001. Fragment).

    He continues:

    “From that moment, he opted to build shorter twin towers instead. He also rejected the possibility of building several smaller buildings on the site, because he believed it would take on the aspects of a high-rise housing development. When he first received the commission, he promised that the result would be ‘tremendous.’ He said that it would be a ‘beautiful solution of form and silhouette separate and apart from the rest of New York with an identify if its own…’” (Harris. 2001. Fragment).

    Therefore, progress on the World Trade Center was slow during 1963 by court “taken by businessmen threatened with eviction from the fifteen-block, sixteen-acre site, bounded by West, Vesey, Church and Liberty streets. Two additional blocks between Washington Street and West Broadway extended the site as far north as Barclay Street” (Stern. 1997. Page 2002).

    Finally, the final Yamasaki design was presented to the press on January 1964:
    “No longer was the project the asymmetrical grouping of various size buildings set on a podium that had been proposed for the East River site. Yamasaki’s bold and instantly identifiable plan was simple in the extreme: two identical 1,350 foot-tall, 110-story towers (quickly dubbed Nelson and David, after the Rockefeller brothers who were ardent proponents of the project) rising from a five-acre plaza bounded by seventy-foot-tall, five-story exhibition and hotel buildings that were intended to modify the towers’ superscale and shield the plaza from Hudson River winds. From the first, the plaza was seen as a kind of twin-campaniled San Marco. Perhaps the goal was to restate the parti for Rockefeller Center in postwar terms, but the open spaces, the low buildings and the towers were all too diagrammatic and bland. Along Church Street, low, eight-story, black anodized-aluminum office blocks served not only to help define the monumental plaza but to continue the traditional scale of the street wall. The plaza’s key eastern edge, however, was left unresolved, since Walker & Gillette’s 1935 branch for the East River Savings Bank, located on a site bounded by Church, Cortland and Dey streets, was not large enough to form the kind of closure that Saks Fifth Avenue did at Rockefeller Center” (Stern. 2000. Fragment).

    The Twin Towers was born, but the designed must to solved many problems, mainly a engineering challengers.

    According with Bill Harris:

    “Among the problems had to deal with was getting the maximum usable floor space behind those exterior walls. In the end, he managed to make the Trade Center towers seventy-five percent efficient, as builders label the amount of actual rentable space. Most office towers are considered successful when the efficiency percentage reaches fifty-two” (Harris. 2001. Page 47).

    He continues:

    “This so-called unusable space is taken up mostly by elevator shafts. The innovation that made this one different was the dividing of the towers into three separate zones, with elevators accessed through what Yamasaki called ‘Sky Lobbies’ on the forty-first and seventy-second floors that were connected to the ground floor by high-speed express elevators, which made local stops on the floors above because the shafts that served the upper floors didn’t have to extend all the way down to ground level, dramatically reducing the number of elevators shafts running from bottom to top. The plan made it possible to increase the usable space by twenty-five percent over comparable buildings. It included twenty-three express elevators on seventy-two local elevators in each of the three zones, far fewer than in towers that were dwarfed by this one” (Harris. 2001. Pages 47-48).

    He continues:

    “Yamasaki’s solution made it possible to give the buildings enough room to accommodate office space for 50,000 people, and to comfortably serve the needs of an additional 80,000 daily visitors. Along with setting a new record as the world’s tallest buildings, in terms of space the Twin Towers were the largest office building on the earth. They were three times bigger that the Pentagon in Washington, the record-holder for a generation, and double the occupancy potential of the Pan Am Building rising above Grand Central Terminal. The official figure was ten million square feet (929,000 m2) of rentable space, two million less than the original challenge the Port Authority had given its architect, but still impressive by any standards” (Harris. 2008. Page 48).

    First model of the World Trade Center's Twin Towers. January 1964.



    Structural Designt
    The design of the Twin Towers, Yamasaki and his team work to design the structure that must resist the wind vibrations and find many ways to give more office spaces that result in an innovative structural system that the main charge was supporting by the steel-frame exoskeleton that was considered a engineering marvel.
    According with Harris (2001):

    “Along with his own staff of fourteen architects, Wamasaki worked hand-in-glove with the engineers, John Skilling and Leslie Robertson, of Worthington, Skilling, Helle, and Jackson. Faced with the problems inherent in building such tall buildings, they decided to innovate a whole new way of doing things. The IBM Building in Seattle was their inspiration for the model they adapted in the form of a unique hollow tube of closely-spaced steel columns, with floor trusses running across to the central core. Except for the elevator shafts and service core, there were no other obstructions between the outer walls” (Harris. 2001. Fragment).

    According with Robert A.M. Stern (1997):

    “As designed by the architects and their structural engineer, John Skilling, the Trade Center was structurally innovative. Rather than a typical frame building curtained in stone or glass, it was en essence a giant steel lattice, acting almost like a bearing wall structure: that is, it was held up mostly by the closely spaced exterior columns, which together with their cross members, formed a right-square of Vierendeel-type truss. The four walls of the tower, locked into place on completion of the building’s framing, constituted, in effect, a hollow tube punched through with windows. The narrow, deep-set windows were seen as a positive feature that would help to counteract acrophobia. As a result of the structural system, the acre-large office floors were column-free, interrupted only by the elevator and service core. The Port Authority adopted an open-plan arrangement for 80 percent of its own space, designed by the Detroit-based firm of Ford & Earl Design Associates. Although the sea of desks and conference tables, separated only by flexible low partitions, was at once visually monotonous and spatially confusing, the scheme did succeed, as Olga Gueft observed, in providing ‘most of the interiors [with] exceptional light and view –an exhilarating effect of floating free over more than a city- over a whole region” (Stern. 1997. Pages 200-201).

    According with Harris (2001):

    “The engineers also incorporated a sophisticated telecommunications system, which was America’s first to have data and video available through a fiber-optic and cable network that allowed electronic international mail and other business to be received instantaneously. Although such things are relatively common these days, it was a major breakthrough at the time, and the system broke new ground for everything that followed” (Harris. 2001. Page 49).

    Finally, Harris describes:

    “Other statistics that never have been topped include delivery of enough electricity, 60,000 kilowatt hours of electricity every day, to serve the needs of a city of 400,000 people. Its air-conditioning system handled 400,000 tons of air each day, too–more than enough to supply every refrigerator in a city with a population of a million” (Harris. 2001. Fragment).

    World Trade Center plan: Photo: 9-11. Research. Link: 911research.wtc7.net/.../wtc/clifton.htm



    North Tower typical floor plan. Photo: 9-11 Research.



    Detail of structure. Photo: 9-11 Research



    Structural system of North Tower. Photo: 9-11 Research. Link: 911research.wtc7.net/.../wtc/godfrey.htm



    Public opposition: a battle for Radio Row

    During 1962 until the beginning of its construction, on August 5, 1966, and more far, until 1967, the World Trade Center project was the center of a public debate that involved the imminent destruction of a old neighborhood (Radio Row), the preservation of the city’s old landmarks, the public opposition against urban renewal movement, and overall, financial and political interest behind the development of the new complex, specially, the Rockefeller brothers, the Port Authority and the City of New York.

    According with Bill Harris:

    “Even before the condemnation orders could be drafted, the owners of some of the stores in what was called ‘Radio Row’ formed an organization they called the Downtown West Businessmen’s Association, and like David confronting Goliath, they announced their intention to take on, and bring down, the Port Authority. The effort began with long and loud protest in the streets, but they didn’t waste any time taking their case to court. Their suit challenged the constitutionality of any attempt on the part of the PA to force them to relocate. The argument was based on the fact that, as far as anyone could tell at that point, the new World Trade Center was really just an office complex, albeit one of gargantuan proportions that had no firm commitment from any government agencies to relocate there. There was no ‘public good’ to be gained by seizing the buildings of small businesses, they argued, and therefore the entire project should be either canceled or relocated itself” (Harris. 2001. Pages 39-40).

    Harris continues:

    “The merchants dragged their case through the state courts, but the judges ruled against them every time. They finally took their arguments to the Supreme Court of the United States, and in December 1963, it upheld the lower court decisions. But among the opinions of the Justices, a statement that the issue didn’t represent a federal question left the door ajar for the DWBA to pursue appeals in the lower courts. In every instance, judges ruled that their suit was nothing much more than a tactic to delay the condemnations. If finally came to rest when the Appellate Division of the New York State Supreme Court upheld the previous opinions that the primary purpose of the World Trade Center was the consolidate the efforts of governments around the world to conduct business in New York City. There was no doubt, in the opinion of the court, that this was clearly a project intended to further the interests of the American public. The effect of the decision was that work could now go forward on building the complex” (Harris. 2001. Page 40).

    He continues:

    “But the bulldozers hadn’t arrived yet, and the store owners kept their hopes that they could be headed off. Having exhausted all the legal avenues, they took to the streets again with loud protest demonstrations to alert the public to the fact that, in their opinion, the Port Authority was an uncaring organization with a well-honed ‘public be damned’ attitude. A few months earlier, the State of New York announced that its downstate offices would relocate to the World Trade Center, which made it, indeed, a public building, and rendered the merchants’ case moot. Still, they didn’t give up. They countered with the argument that this was supposed to be a center of world trade and not a state office building. As far as they were concerned, it just represented a bit of political skullduggery on the part of New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller to support the dream of his brother, David. David Rockefeller had long been characterized as Public Enemy Number One by the association, but now they had found a new, a more visible, whipping boy” (Harris. 2001. Fragment).

    The debate for the World Trade Center was a great political debate, overall, when the Rockefellers political interest had involved supporting the project against the small businessmen who try to save their neighborhood.

    Harris also continues:

    “The Governor had made himself more visible by running for President of the United States in 1964, and everywhere he went, in New York City at least, he was confronted with angry demonstrators waving picket sign portraying him as an uncaring enemy of small business, not the mention everybody who had to work for a living. The may have won over many New Yorkers to their cause, and possibly even cost Rockefeller some votes, but their protest didn’t have much more of an effect than to delay the Trade Center’s progress for more than a year. The radio locaters ultimately relocated to Sixth Avenue above Forty-Second Street, where a building boom forced them out of yet another neighborhood. But they went quiet this time, for most of them, the fuel that had kept them in business was the sale of the host of different components for building high-fidelity audio equipment, and as manufacturers began providing self-contained units through less specialized stores. Only the most dedicated music lovers were still assembling tuners, tweeters, woofers, amplifiers, and pre-amp anymore” (Harris. 2001. Pages 40 and 42).

    Mayors Wagner and Lindsay’s roles

    The most crucial role that driver to the construction of the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center was feature by the New York City Mayors Robert F. Wagner (1954-1965) and John V. Lindsay (1966-1973) to supporting the development and construction of the new complex.

    Both mayors supporting the development of the World Trade Center because its construction meaning a crucial element on the financial recovery of New York City as the World’s Financial Capital and its construction means a budget of many millions of dollars to the arcs of the city, in these time was entering in a deep fiscal crisis. The argument, according with Harris: its quasi-public nature. Since 1962 the World Trade Center project control passed from Rockefeller speculative project to the total control of the Port Authority. And it means that the both majors fought against real Radio Row’s small businessmen interest to preserve the neighborhood in the name of the City’s future.

    According with Bill Harris:

    “Mayor Robert F. Wagner raised the first the first voice of protest in a interview with the New York Times, pointing out that the city was predicting a potential loss of many millions of dollars a year in tax revenue. He added that, ‘The city is not even a position to turn the proposition down [and] must take it whether it wants it or not. We want to see the World Trade project succeeded, but we must be in on take-off as well as any crash landings.’ That reference was a nod to a part of the Port Authority’s charter that allows it to make as much money as it can, but forces the local government to cover any losses from unsuccessful projects. Such a thing had never happened in the Authority’s history, but there was still the possibility that it might. As an office complex, the Trade Center would be run by income from rents, and the commercial real state market in New York is notorious for its tendency to fall dramatically from time to time. More important, such a huge development represented a drain of the city’s resources in terms of fire and police protection, and transportation in and out of the lower West Side where systems would surely need to be upgraded”(Harris. 2001. Pages 42-43).

    Harris continues:

    “There were also cries of ‘foul’ from a group of state senators, one of whom pointed out that the city was being forced into the ‘surrender of sixteen blocks of the most valuable real state in the world’ and noted that, in his opinion, the complex was ‘nothing more than an ordinary office building operation that could be done privately.’ A State Supreme Court Justice chimed in with the opinion that the Port Authority had overstepped its mandate by assuming that the court’s approval for demolishing the Hudson & Manhattan terminal gave it a go-ahead to condemn the rest of the neighborhood” (Harris. 2001. Page 43).

    He continues:

    “The controversy bubbled beneath the surface until John V. Lindsay replaced Wagner at City Hall. He had a trump card to pay that could the city cut its losses. Although the Port Authority had the power to condemn property, even if that was still questionable, they were barred from reclaiming the city’s streets, several of which would have to be de-mapped to assemble the superblock that the project demanded. Lindsay balked at allowing any deals, and instead called the City Council to hold off its approval until public hearing could be undertaken” (Harris. 2001. Fragment).

    He continues:

    “During the Wagner years, the Port Authority had negotiated a deal to reimburse the city for lost income with annual payments in lieu of taxes. As the date for the public hearings came closer, the Authority unilaterally raised the figure from $1.7 million a year to a more generous four million. That managed to defuse Lindsay’s scheme, and it gave Port Authority Chairman Austin Tobin a way to explain the importance of the project in a bid to encourage public support. Traditionally the agency worked behind closed doors with only meager details of its plans for various projects, and this one was no different. It was clear, though, that it needed to come out into the open, at least enough to capture the public’s enthusiasm, and the City Council hearings provided Tobin with a bully pulpit. He pulled out all the stops” (Harris. 2001. Pages 43-44).

    He continues:

    “When he went to the City Council Chamber he took along an impressive assembly of blue star public officials, including the heads of nearly every chamber of commerce in the Port District, as well as Franklyn Delano Roosevelt, Jr., representing the federal commerce department. The list of those who came prepared to testify included John F. Kennedy Jr., and cabinet members from the Secretary of State to the Secretary of Commerce. Although there was no television coverage, the press corps showed up in impressive numbers to help get the word out that something big was happening at City Hall” (Harris. 2001. Page 44).

    Harris continues:

    “For added emphasis, City Hall Park was packed with construction workers shouting demands for the work to get started. Building construction was in a serious slump at the time, and they let anybody who would listen now that their families and their way of life were in serious jeopardy. To reinforce their argument, the head of the building trades union told reporters that if the World Trade Center project didn’t get started right away his member would go out in strike” (Harris. 2001. Fragment).

    New York Mayor Robert F. Wagner (1954-1965). Photo: The New York Times. Link: http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/20...hday-mr-mayor/



    New York City Mayor John V. Lindsay (1966-1973). Photo: Wikipedia




    The Center’s win the battle.

    After three years of the negotiations, in 1966 the way for the construction of the World Trade Center were begun to be cleared.

    According with journalist Bill Harris (2001):

    “After the hearings ended, negotiations between the city and the Port Authority dragged on for yet another seven months leaving the project still on hold. Tobin upped his offer of annual payments from four to six million dollars, and although Mayor Lindsay noted that the city could easily realize four times that much from a private developer, he accepted the deal anyway, and the last hurdle was cleared as the city authorized the condemnation of streets in the area and work could finally get under way” (Harris. 2001. Fragment).

    According with Robert A.M. Stern (1997):

    “(…) a new agreement between the city and the Port Authority, hammered out in August 1966, resulted in greater revenues to the city. In additions, the Port Authority agreed to finance $146 millions in off-site public improvements and to use the excess fill from the Trade Center excavations to create twenty-three acres of new land along the waterfront as part of the proposal for Battery Park City” (Stern. 1997. Page 202).
    Finally, construction works for the World Trade Center begun, with the start of the demolition of Radio Row district, on August 5, 1966.

    The final design of the World Trade Center. 1964.




    Next week: the construction of the Twin Towers.


    your opinion are very important!!!

    if you have a opinion about my thread or you want to put a picture of new york city's skyscraper history, please, show here!!!!!

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