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Thread: History New York 20th century

  1. #226

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    Something better about the days of fedoras and cigarette smoke. gimme old time NYC.

  2. #227

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    Yeah, I recognized some of those photos from Harris' New York: A Photographic Journey.

  3. #228

    Default Manhattan 1980s

    1982


    Hi!!!. Welcome back on this travel through the history of New York skyscrapers during the 20th Century. Now, continuing with the early 1980s, I show a general panorama of the evolution of the city's skyline during 1982.

    In 1982 the city was in the middle of the a new office building boom that reflects the city's financial recovery. The new buildings, builts under the canons of the tardo-modernism movement and the new lines of Postmodernist movement begun to brokes the rigidous line of the boxes skyscraper of the 1950s and 1960s International Style and the new buildings begun to be influenced by the extravagance and elegancy of the Art Deco lines of the legendary 1920s and 1930s setback skyscrapers. These new tendency were evidenced in the lines of the new buildings for the project of the World Financial Center, and the Equitable Center, that construction activities begun in these year.

    The new prosperity of the city's financial districts were a symbold of a new age of voracity and ambitious of the International Capitalism and its chairman that rules all the 1980s, while Michael Jackson move to the world with his great music success called "Thriller", the Reagan administrations begin the rises of the Conservatism movement in the American politics and the AIDS pandemia begun to took many young lives.

    In the fact many buildings were complete in New York City during 1982 and many others were rises up in these year.


    Buildings were completed during 1982:

    • 26-story Phillip Morris Headquarters Building.
    • 50-story 101 Park Avenue Building.
    • 33-story Gateway Plaza on Battery Park City.
    • 36-story 535 Madison Avenue Building.
    • 43-story Continental Illinois Center (520 Madison Avenue Building).
    • 33-story Tower 56 (126 East 56th Street).
    • 31-story Crystal Pavilion (805 Third Avenue)
    • 26-story 875 Third Avenue Building


    Buildings under construction during 1982:

    • 38-story AT&T Building
    • 44-story IBM Building (near completion in December 1982).
    • 52-story Museum Tower.
    • 68-story Trump Tower.
    • 44-story Continental Building
    • 33-story 175 Water Street Building
    • 44-story Wang Building on Third Avenue and East 48th Street (excavation. The building begun to rises up in Summer 1982).
    • 40-story Two United Nations Plaza.
    • 27-story 101 Barclay Street Building
    • 25-story Seven Hannover Square
    • 30-story 85 Broad Street Building
    • 36-story 900 Third Avenue Building
    • 40-story 1155 Sixth Avenue Building


    Construction activity begun for the next skyscrapers:
    • 22-story Bank of America Building (old 1913 Biltmore Hotel. Demolition of the original facade).
    • 44-story One World Financial Center (Dow Jones Building. Excavation).
    • 54-story Three World Financial Center (American Express Building. Excavation)
    • 34-story One Seaport Plaza (excavation. The tower begun to rises up until late 1982)
    • 40-story 500 Park Tower (demolition of existing buildings and excavation)
    • 53-story Marriott Marquis Hotel, at Times Square (demolition of Morocco and Helen Hayes Theater, and excavation).
    • 55-story Equitable Center (demolition of old Victoria Hotel and excavation).
    • 32-story Republic National Bank Building (excavation. The building begun to rises up until autum 1982).
    • 40-story 575 Fifth Avenue Building (demolition of existing buildings and excavation. The building begun to rises up until late 1982).



    Now, a general panorama of the city in 1982:

    The steel skeleton of the AT&T Building. January 1982:




    Aerial view of Lower Manhattan skyline looking northeast after a snow storm. February 1982.




    Aerial view of Midtown Manhattan looking east from Hudson River after a snow storm. February 1982.




    Aerial view of New York and Statue of Liberty after a snow storm. February 1982.




    Aerial view of Lower Third Avenue District looking north from 14th Street with Midtown Manhattan at background. March 1982.




    Night view of Midtown Manhattan looking east from RCA Building. The Citicorp Center (center of the picture) dominates the panorama. March 1982.




    The World Trade Center as seen from Hudson River. April 1982.




    The Twin Towers of the World Trade Center as seen from the top of the Woolworth Building. April 1982.




    The old Citibank Tower (1961) and the new Citicorp Tower (1977), as seen from NY Raquet and Tennis Club. May 1982.




    Street scene in New York: 42nd Street between Lexington and Third Avenues. May 1982.




    Sixth Avenue towers as seen from Warwick Hotel. View looking south. May 1982.




    Park Avenue's canyons as seen from Pan Am Building. View looking north. May 1982.




    Wheatfield in Battery Park City's landfill. Art work by Agnes Denes. View looking north showing Lower Manhattan's skyscrapers. May 1982.




    Midtown Manhattan looking north from Empire State Building. June 1982. Photo 1 of 2.




    Photo 2 of 2.




    The new 50-story 101 Park Avenue Building (Eli Attia), nears completion. July 1982.




    Aerial view of the Rockefeller Center area. View looking northwest showing the original complex recently cleanned. July 1982. Photo: Skyviews Aerial Surveys




    Midtown Manhattan looking north from RCA Building showing Central Park. July 1982.




    Midtown Manhattan looking north from World Trade Center's South Tower's 110-story Observation Roof. The Empire State Building dominates the skyline. July 1982.




    Night view of Grand Central district from RCA Building. Buildings from Left to Right is Hemsley Building, the Pan Am (center) and behind it the top of the Chrysler Building. July 1982.




    Night view of Midtown Manhattan looking south from RCA Building. July 1982.




    A mirror skyscraper's pionner: a 1971 31-story reflective glass skyscraper. July 1982.




    The new Park Avenue Plaza. September 1982.





    Next week the 1983 special for the IBM Building.
    YOUR OPINION ARE VERY IMPORTANT. IF YOU DO LIKE TO MAKE SOME COMMENTARY, TO CONTRIBUITE WITH A ARTICLE OR ONLY PUT A PICTURE ON THIS THREAD, PLEASE SHOW IT. THANK YOU!!!
    Last edited by erickchristian; March 23rd, 2011 at 03:40 AM.

  4. #229

    Default

    This thread is awesome! Thanks so much for your hard work!

  5. #230

    Default Manhattan 1980s

    1983 SPECIAL

    THE IBM BUILDING






    ABSTRACT TOWER




    Hi friends!!! Welcome back on this trip through the history of New York Skyscrapers during the 20th Century. Now, continuing in the 1980s, I show a special for 1983 that is dedicated of a one of the early postmodernist masterpiece: the IBM Building at 590 Madison Avenue and that it was dedicated in these year.

    The IBM Building was one of the first skyscrapers that build in Madison Avenue since 1973, when the 45-story Merchantise Mart Building, in Madison Square park was completed and it one of the first buildings that was completed in the avenue in the Upper Midtown zone since 1970.

    Designed by defuncted architect Edward Larrabee Barnes (1915-2004), the IBM Headquartes Building, at 590 Madison Avenue, is a one of the most abstract skyscrapers that build in Manhattan in the last 30 years a it is a Postmodernist pionners. The 43-story gray-green granite and green-colored glass abstract skyscraper was the last phase of the office space growing of one of the most powerful computer machines world-wide corporations that means the story of the corporate America, since its beginning in the old 22-story Ley Building, at 590 Madison Avenue in the 1920s, that was the building that occupied the site of the actual IBM Tower.

    IBM Growing.

    According with the Wikipedia, the history of the International Business Machines (the complete name of IBM) began in 1911, with the creation of the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR), "following a merger of the Computer Scale Company of America and the International Time Recording Company with the Tabulating Machine Company".The New York City based company "had 1,300 employees and offices and plants in Endicott and Binghamton, New York; Dayton, Ohio; Detroit, Michigan; Washington, D.C.; and Toronto, Ontario. It manufactured and sold machinery ranging from commercial scales and industrial time recorders to meat and cheese slicers, along with tabulators and punched cards" (IBM from Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia. 2011. Wikipedia.org. Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM).

    But, in the 1920's the competence of the businees machines of NCR (National Cash Register) and the continuing growth of the CTR's operations in Europe, Canada and South America, the company, headed by Thomas J. Watson (a former NCR chairman), was renaimed the International Business Machines Company (IBM) on February 14, 1924 (IBM from Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia. 2011. Wikipedia.org. Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM).

    Since 1920s IBM occupies many old office buildings in New York City area, but, in the mid 1930s, when the company operations were dramatically increassed, the needs of a new building were evident. Finally in 1938 IBM occupied a new building in 590 Madison Avenue, a 22-story old Beaux Arts skyscraper that build in 1926: the Ley Building.

    The original world headquarters of IBM on 590 Madison Avenue at Ley Building. Detail of the building base. 1938. Photo: from IBM Website. Link: http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/ex...506VV2045.html



    Madison Avenue skyline from RCA Building in 1958: the small office building without windows (foreground, below the Fuller Building) is the old LEY Building, the former headquarters of IBM. Photo by: avaloncm. Flickr.com. Link: http://www.flickr.com/photos/mcwphot...n/photostream/



    The same panorama in January 1970. The old IBM Building is the small building that illuminated with electronic clock and IBM signs, in the center of the picture.




    During the 1960s, the IBM Corporation was growing in a great scale and its electronic computer machines was famous in all the world. Its work include its collaboration with many corporations, the U.S. Goverment and the NASA. During the 1960s, the increassing operations of the company made to IBM commisioned to many architects to build a new headquarters in Seattle (Minoru Yamasaki, 1964), Chicago (Mies Van der Rohe, 1968-1971) while in New York its office operations made to IBM to build a new office building in the suburbs. In Manhattan the company occupies the old Ley building and adjacent office building along the block between Madison and Fifth Avenue and the 57th Street.

    But, in 1970, when the computer and software works was the main part of the work in IBM, the need for a new office building for the company in Manhattan was more evident.

    The Project.

    Works for design of the new New York's IBM Headquarters began in early 1970s, more specific, in 1973 under the hands of the architect Edward Larrabee Barnes who begun to work on the new office building for IBM in the same site of the current offices on 590 Madison Avenue. According with the Wikipedia, "the construction of the IBM building was permitted by New York City. Its plan included square footage exceeded the legal limitation of allowable floor area but it was accepted because of the bonus for providing benefits of public open space". (Source: IBM Building. From Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia. Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_Bui..._New_York_City).

    According with Robert A.M. Stern (2006): "Barnes began work in 1973 on preliminary studies for a thirty-eight-story, 830,000-square-foot building for IBM, but plans did not move forward" (Stern, Robert A.M.; Fishman, David; Tilove, Jacob. New York 2000. Architecture and Urbanism Between the Bicentennial and the Millennium. New York. The Monacelli Press. 2006. Page 500).

    But it was until July 11, 1978 when the plans for the new headquarters building for IBM took shape. Acording with Stern (2006):

    "It was not until 1978 that IBM came forward with Barnes's plans for a prismatic, five-sided, forty-three-story building which, when complete, would, according with the architect, 'look like a slab from one angle, like a shaft form another and like a block from another.' The one-million-square-foot tower, ocupying 40 percent of its site, was clad in polished gray-green granite and horizontal bands of tinted gray-green glass" (Stern. 2006. Fragment).


    Model of the IBM Building in 1978. Photo: from James Rappa's Website: Link: http://www.jamesrappa.com/projects.html



    The architectural criticists, journalists and the public in general, greeted the new office building with enthusiasm, specially because the new design include a new public roofted park. In his book The Skyscraper, Paul Goldberger said about the new building in 1981, when it was under construction:

    "The use of masonry is welcome, as is the 4-story, greenhouse like public park that will be at the tower's base; here the new civic duty has been given noble architectural expression. This building is sleeker than a stone tower should be, but nonetheless it seems, on the whole, to be more mature, more restrained as a work of architecture than does its neighbor the Trump Tower" (Goldberg, Paul. The Skyscraper. New York. Alfred A. Knopf. 1981. Page 146).

    Construction.

    Demolition works on the old Ley Building begun in the summer of 1977, and by January 1978 the site for the new IBM Headquarters was cleared.

    The future site for the new IBM Building. December 1978. Photo: Unknown. From John Fekner Website. Link: http://johnfekner.com/feknerArchive/?p=1024




    Excavation works begun in the spring of 1979 and continuing during the rest of the year. The first steel columns begun to put in the site in the last weeks of 1979 and the building began to rise up in January 1980 (aproximately).

    Structure of the IBM Building base. April 1980. Photo from: TLC Great Quakers.
    Link: http://www.pangeum.tv/exhibit/tlc/gr...techplace.html



    The building's steel structure was completed on May 1981, During all 1981 works for the gray-green granite and gray-green tinted glass's facade were on progress.

    View of Midtown Manhattan looking west in January 1982 from a Park Avenue's building during the construction of the AT&T Building. The IBM Building under construction are visible on extreme right of the picture. Photo from Michael Sporn Animation. Inc. Website. Link: http://www.michaelspornanimation.com...200909&paged=2.




    The IBM building's facade were completed in the summer of 1982. By January of 1983 the building were completed and was dedicated in May 1983.

    Abstract architecture

    The IBM Building was dedicated in May of 1983, and was greeted with entusiasm by the criticists. The building revealed a transition between the minimalist lines of International Style Modernism and the abstraction of the Posmodernist.

    One of a most characters of the Larrabee Barnes' design, is its abstract shape that change according of the possition of the pedestrian. While in the corner of Madison Avenue and 57th Street, the building looks like a conventional box tower, in the corner of the 56th Street and Madison Avenue the building was cut in diagonal given a triangular-shaped box. This design was created by Barnes for one reason: the shave give space for the construction of a glazed public park.

    According with Stern (2006):

    "In its way, Barnes's design was a challenge to the prevailing Modernist taste for glass, but it lacked the iconoclastic panache of Johnson's AT&T design. Taking a cue from Hugh Stubbin's Citicorp Center (1977), the IBM Building performeed a feat of structural bravura: while Citicorp was carried by four enormous colums located at the midpoint of each of the tower's sides, IBM rose directly from thr ground except at the corner of Fifty-seventh Street and Madison Avenue, where the first three floors were sliced away to mark the entrance, resulting in a disquieting sense of structural insubstantially which Barnes believed produced 'an unexpected sense of openness at what would otherwise be a crowded corner.' Also like Citicorp, IBM included an important public space, a sixty-eight-foot-high triangular climate-controlled glazed atrium topped by a sawtooth-shaped roof. Barnes claimed that the tower's unusual shape reinforced the city's street grid while allowing the maximum amount of light into the atrium, located along Fifty-sixth Street. Designed in association with landscape architects Zion & Breen, the 10,000-square-foot atrium, featuring some 300 North Carolina bamboo threes located in eleven groves, would, as public space, bring a substancial development bonus. The scheme also included a thrity-five-foot-tall through-block pedestrial arcade located behind Garden Place, as the atrium was called, as well as a below-grade, a 13,000-square-foot exhibition space, the Gallery of Science and Art" (Stern. 2006. Pages 500 and 501)".

    IBM Building (Edward Larrabee Barnes. 1978-1983). View looking east from Fifth Avenue and 57th Street. July 1983.




    Building elevation. Photo: Matthew Bisanz. Wikipedia. Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:IB...hew_Bisanz.jpg




    View of the building from the northeast corner of Madison Avenue and 57th Street. Photo:joost.theuwissen . Flickr.com. Link: http://www.flickr.com/photos/1089237...n/photostream/



    According with Eric P. Nash in his book: Manhattan Skyscrapers (1999):

    "The 43-story IBM Building is a transitional object between the self-imposed severity of high modernism and the new freedom of posmodernism. The building's principal deviations from internationalism orthodoxy are in its use of materials and its daring lack of structural expression. Edward L. barnes luxuriates in shape and color. The building is boldly sculptural rather than structural,a faceted, five-side chunk of green granite and glass, like a piece of the Esmerald City of Oz. This is one of the more sucessfully lithic new buildings: the heavy cornice looks like a solid stone, and the lobby corridors looks as if they were mined out of a central core. Barnes was interested in symbolic rather than purely structural expression: the building corner that just over Madison and 57th Street is wildly cantilevered" (Nash. Eric P. Manhattan Skyscraper. New York. Princeton Architectural Press. 1999. Page 145).


    The IBM Building.




    Next, a general panorama of the evolution of the city skyline in 1983.


    YOUR OPINION ARE VERY IMPORTANT. IF YOU DO LIKE TO MAKE SOME COMMENTARY, TO CONTRIBUITE WITH A ARTICLE OR ONLY PUT A PICTURE ON THIS THREAD, PLEASE SHOW IT. THANK YOU!!!
    Last edited by erickchristian; May 6th, 2011 at 11:25 PM.

  6. #231

    Default Manhattan 1980s

    1983

    Hi friends!!!. Continuing with our travel through the history of the New York during the 20th Century, now I show a general panorama of the evolution of the city skyline in 1983.

    In these year the Brooklyn Bridge celebrated this 100th Anniversary (May 24), and in these year the city was experimented a new building boom that begun to change the skyline. In the summer of these year the first of the four buildings of the World Financial Center (1 WFC) begun to rises up and the second and the tallest of the new complex begun to rises in the autum of these year. The 43-story IBM Building at 590 Madison Avenue were dedicated and construction works of the AT&T Building and the Trump Tower were on their last phase. The financial recovering was stimulated the real estate speculation and new office and residential towers were build on many areas of Manhattan Island. In 1983 the skiline of Lower Manhattan begun to change with the inauguration of the 44-story Continental Building, the 33-story 175 Water Street building and many other buildings, included the 30-story 85 Broad Street Building that was design in early 1970s and originally was schedulled for completion for 1974, but it was on hold because the financial crisis of the mid 1970s and the project was rebirth until 1980.

    Buildings that was completed during 1983:
    • 44-story IBM Building.
    • 44-story Continental Building
    • 33-story 175 Water Street Building
    • 40-story Two United Nations Plaza.
    • 27-story 101 Barclay Street Building
    • 25-story Seven Hannover Square
    • 30-story 85 Broad Street Building
    • 36-story 900 Third Avenue Building


    Buildings under construction during 1983:
    • 38-story AT&T Building
    • 52-story Museum Tower.
    • 68-story Trump Tower.
    • 40-story 1155 Sixth Avenue Building
    • 44-story Wang Building on Third Avenue and East 48th Street.
    • 44-story One World Financial Center (Excavation. The building begun to rises up in summer 1983).
    • 54-story Three World Financial Center (American Express Building. Excavation. The building begun to rises up in Fall 1983).
    • 32-story Republic National Bank Building
    • 40-story 500 Park Tower
    • 22-story Bank of America Building
    • 40-story 575 Fifth Avenue Building
    • 34-story One Seaport Plaza
    • 53-story Marriott Marquis Hotel, at Times Square (construction of the central concrete core).
    • 55-story Equitable Center (excavation. The building begun to rises up in late 1983).
    • 30-story Novotel
    • 30-story Republic National Bank Building
    • 17-story HBO Building (old 1914-1929 Bryant Park Building. Renovation of the facade)



    Construction activity begun for the next skyscrapers:
    • 45-story Tower 45 (demolition of existing buildings and excavation. The building begun to rises up in late 1983).
    • 71-story Metropolitan Tower (demolition of existing buildings and excavation).
    • 30-story 33 Maiden Lane Office Building (demolition of existing buildings and excavation).
    • 32-story Four World Financial Center (excavation).


    Now, a general panorama of the city skyline in 1983.

    Aerial view of Lower Manhattan looking southeast from Hudson River. March 1983.




    Night panorama of Lower Manhattan skyline looking west from Brooklyn Harbor. March 1983.




    Lower Manhattan looking west from Brooklyn Bridge. March 1983.




    Three generations of skyscrapers togheter: from left to right: the Neo-Romanic Transportation Building (1924), the Neo-Gothic Woolworth Building (1913) and behind it the modern Twin Towers of the World Trade Center (1973) and a modern office building (1963). View looking southwest from Municipal Building. April 1983.




    Fifth Avenue from Empire State Building. View looking north. May 1983. In the center of the picture can be seen the Trump Tower and the AT&T Building under construction.




    Sunset view of Midtown Manhattan from World Trade Center's South Tower. View looking north. May 1983.




    Midtown Manhattan looking north from Empire State Building. May 1983.




    Park Avenue skyscrapers from Empire State Building. May 1983. The Pan Am Building dominates the panorama.




    The new 43-story Continental Illinois Center (520 Madison Avenue Building. 1982). May 1983.




    The top of the Chrysler Building from Empire State Building. May 1983. In the foreground can be see the top of the new 101 Park Avenue tower.




    The 59th Street. View looking east from Plaza Hotel. June 1983.




    Night view of Lower Manhattan and the bay from Empire State Building. June 1983.




    Night view of Midtown Manhattan looking north from WTC's South Tower. June 1983.




    The Citicorp Tower. June 1983.




    The new 43-story IBM Building. View looking east from Fifth Avenue and 57th Street. July 1983.




    The 44-story Continental Tower, in the Financial District, next to South Street Seaport. August 1983.




    Two generations of skyscraper. In the left the legendary Art Deco 60 Wall Tower (American International Building of Cities Services. 1932), and the new Postmodern Seven Hannover Square Building. October 1983. View from One New York Plaza.




    Christmas in New York. Night view of the Rockefeller Center looking west from Newsweek Building (444 Madison Avenue). showing the RCA Building's new lights and the traditional giant Christmas tree. December 1983.





    Next, a 1984 panorama of the Trump Tower.


    YOUR OPINION ARE VERY IMPORTANT. IF YOU DO LIKE TO MAKE SOME COMMENTARY, TO CONTRIBUITE WITH A ARTICLE OR ONLY PUT A PICTURE ON THIS THREAD, PLEASE SHOW IT. THANK YOU!!!

  7. #232

    Default Manhattan 1980s

    1983 SPECIAL


    THE TRUMP TOWER






    EGO MONUMENT


    Hi friends, welcome back on this trip through the history of New York skyscrapers through the 20th Century. Now, continuing with the 1980s, I show a 1983 special of one of the most prominet 1980s skyscrapers that symbolizes the power of the new yuppie culture and a monument to the ego of its developer: the Trump Tower.

    The 68-story mixed-use Trum Tower is a bronze-colored glass tower located at 721 Fifth Avenue, at the corner of East 56th Street on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, New York City. It was developed by Donald Trump and the Equitable Life Assurance Company, and designed by Der Scutt of Swanke, Hayden Connell. The tower was completed on November 30, 1983 (from Wikipedia. Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trump_Tower_(New_York_City)).

    The history of the Trump Tower began in February of 1979, when Donald Trump made public his intention for build a new mixe-use tower in the site that occupied by Bonwit Teller store, in Fifth Avenue and East 56th Street. The intention of Trump to build his tower was influenced by the success of the recently completed 55-story Olympic Tower (Skydmore, Owings & Merrill 1976) and the 36-story 650 Fifth Avenue (1978).


    The development

    In February 28, 1979, the 32 year old developer Donald J. Trump "release plans for a sixty-story, bronze colored, glass-clad, concrete framed tower featuring apartments, office space, and a six-level retail atrium for the northeast corner of Fifth Avenue and Fifty-sixth Street, a site occupied by the eleven-story home of the department store Bonwit teller (Warren & Wetmore, 1929; remodeled, Ely Jacques Kahn, 1930). A month earlier, Trump had purchased the store's lease from Genesco, and had entered into a fifty-fifty partnership with the owner of the underlying land, the Equitable Life Assurance Society. Trump was also able to buy air rights from its inmediate neighbor to the north, Tiffany & Company (Cross & Cross, 1940), the jewelers, after convincing the company's president, Walter Hoving, that the sale would secure the store's future at its desirable location because Trump put it, 'no one will ever try to rip it down.' To further convince Hoving, Trump showed him a model of a 'hideous alternative' built without air rights that featured fifty stories of 'lot-line windows -tiny little windows with wire mesh' rising directly over the store building. the L-shaped site also included a small parcel just east of Tiffany facing Fifty-seventh Street" (Stern, Robert A.M.; Fishman, David; Tilove, Jacob. New York 2000. Architecture and Urbanism Between the Bicentennial and the Millennium. New York. The Monacelli Press. 2006. Pages 547-548).


    The old Bonwit Teller Building (Warren & Wetmore and Ely Jacques Kahn, 1929-1930). May 1930. The building was demolished in 1979.




    The new development was welcomed by many people because the new tower, was a sign of financial recovery of the city, and the development was announced many months after the announcements for the new AT&T and IBM buildings, but many others was dissagreed with Trump's intentions of demolish the old Bonwit Teller's building because they was considered a great architectural loss. According with Stern (2006):

    "There was also some disappointment voiced over the loss of the Bonwit Teller Building, a refined example of the modern classicism of the late 1920s that began life as Stewart & Company, a women's specialty store that quickly fell victim to Depression but was reborn as Bonwit Teller. In the mid-1970s Walker/Grad had renovated Bonwit Teller in an attempt to liven up the interiors, which had come to be seen by the retailer, if not by the public, as staid, although the merchant's problem lay not with its merchandise: the once top-line Bonwit's was losing ground to its traditional rival, Bergdorf-Goodman, across the street, as well as other high-fashion-oriented department store like Blommingdale's" (Stern. 2006. Page 548).

    Trump was commisioned to Der Scutt of Poor, Swanke, Hayden & Conell the design of the new building. Scutt was renown as one of the most famous Posmodern precursors and his works was more far away of the conventional modern architecture. One of the most famous Scutt's buildings in New York is the One Astor Plaza in Times Square (see Page 13 of this forum), that was build between 1968 and 1972 when he work with Kahn & Jacobs.

    One Astor Plaza (Der Scutt of Kahn & Jacobs. 1972). Photo taken in December 1971 when the buildings was nearing completion.




    During 1979 Scutt work of many scketches. According with Stern:

    "Trump Tower, as the mixed-use building was quickly debbed, featured a twenty-eight-sided tower, said to complemet IBM's five-sided tower, set atop a street defining base. At the rear,a retail atrium was connected to the avenue by a wide, shop-lined public corridor, a zoning-inspired provision that yielded extra suquare footage for the developer, despite the fact that it did not meet the objectives of the Fifth Avenue Special Zoning District, intended to reward midblock north-south arcades. Trump and Scutt argued that the east-west design was deserving of a bonus because it would connect with IBM's interior garden, garanting passage from Fifth Avenue to Madison Avenue, and that, given IBM's provision of a midblock north-south connection, another north-south passage would be redundant. In addition to minimizing the bulk of the tower, Trump pointed out a further advantage of the design's sawtooth arrangement: 'The multiple sides would ensure at least two views from every room, and in the end, that would make it possible to charge more for the apartments'. Before coming up with his final design, Scutt experiment with numerous alternatives, including a version with a rectangular limestone base as well as a tower featuring three exterior glass elevators that was rejected because it required the sacrifice of too much saleable interior space. Like the model shown to Hoving to convince him to sell his air rights, Scutt also produced a seventy-seven-story as-of-right design. Although Trump was probably not serious about building this version, the developer hoped it would dramatize to the City Planing Commission the advantages of his preferred design, which require considerable zoning concessions" (Stern. 2006. Fragment).

    Interior design of Trump Tower. 1979. Photo: Der Scutt. From Der Scutt's website. Link: http://www.derscutt.com/index.php/pr.../trump_tower/#




    The final design of the Trump Tower was showed in October 1979; few weeks before the City Planning Commission approve the construction of the building. The final design of the Trump’s development was greeted with enthusiasm by many criticisms and with some skepticism for many others. According with Paul Goldberger (see Stern. 2006. Page 548), the final design of the building contains these mean characteristics:

    “Paul Goldberg (…) praised Scutt’s ‘slim tower of bronze glass, rising not as a rectangle but in a sculptural shape that is best described as a series of setbacks… At the bottom will be an 85-foot base, with setbacks in profile this time, looking like a pile of children’s blocks and providing more than a dozen small, landscaped terraces’”(Stern. 2006. Page 548).

    But, according with Stern, Goldberg greets the building design with some of skepticism:

    “Despite the elegance of its silhouette, Goldberg felt that the building that the building was likely to be an ‘inappropriate’ neighbor to Cross & Cross’s limestone-clad Tiffany & Company. Moreover, he wrote, taken as a group, Bonwit Teller and Tiffany’s ‘form a remarkable pair of limestone fronts, as crucial to the making of the classic image of chic New York retailing as anything on Fifth Avenue. Breaking up this set will be a loss to the entire city –and replacing it with a building of bronze-colored glass will mean a clash not only with Tiffany’s to the north, but also with the elegant green glass Corning Glass tower (Harrison, Abramovitz & Abbe, 1959) to the south.’ Goldberg also wondered whether the interior shopping mall might not ‘pull a lot of retail activity off the street, which is no help to the city at all’” (Stern. 2006. Fragment).

    Many citizens group manifest their opposition of the construction of Trump Tower, one of they, according with Stern (page 548) called themselves the “New York Committee for a Balanced Building Boom” opposed the Trump proposal in a testimony before the City Planning Commission, but in October 19, 1979, the commission approve the construction of the new building. According with Stern, the commission unanimously approved “a fifty-six-story mixed-use skyscraper for the Bonwit Teller site, four stories lower than originally proposed by Trump but one that achieved a FAR of 21 on a site that, without the bonuses and the air rights, would have yielded a FAR of just 8.5. in part, Donald Trump credited Ada Louise Huxtable with greeting the project though the City Planning Commission. Even though her review had hardly been a rave, Trump noted that simply the title of the article, ‘A New York Blockbuster of Superior Design,’ was enough to influence the commissioners: ‘That headline probably did more for my zoning than any single thing I ever said of did’” (Stern. 2006. Fragment).

    Controversial construction

    The controversial demolition of the Art Deco Bonwit Teller Building began in spring 1980. The controversy was made when previous days, workers under instructions of Trump removed two fifteen-foot-high bas relief stone sculptures of female nudes located in the façade of the old building and Trump promises that the sculptures have been donated to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, but, according with a article on The New York Times, these pieces was lost, and when the Times article reported the missing of the sculptures, many people turns against Trump (Stern. 2006, page 549). The construction of the foundation and concourse level of the new building was begun in late 1980 and the building itself begun to rises up on the spring of 1981.

    When the building was under construction, Bonwit Teller accorded with Trump to return of the store in a much smaller local in the new building. The construction of reinforce concrete-framed skeleton of the tower continued during 1981 and all 1982, and the works for the façade begun in spring 1982. Finally in the building was complete in October 1983.


    Fifth Avenue area from Empire State Building. May 1983. View looking north showing the Trump Tower under construction in the center (background, above the Olympic Tower).




    Opening

    The Trump Tower was open to the business in November 1983, but the first apartments begun to be occupied until first months of 1984. The 756,000-square-foot, 664-foot high, 58-story tower was considered in these time the tallest concrete-framed building in the city, included thirteen office floors and 263 condominium apartments, all sitting atop the 100-foot-high, six-level atrium (Stern. 2006. Page 551). According with Stern (2006):

    “The tower’s glass façade was darker than the original drawings suggested. Ada Louise Huxtable, who had initially praised the design, dismissed the building’s ‘unexceptionally detailed, dark glass skin’ as ‘dull and ordinary,’ and the editors of AIA Guide described it as little more than ‘a simplistic folded glass tower.’ Martin Filler could hardly generate much more enthusiasm, writing that ‘the best that can be said for is that Der Scutt’s serrated setbacks… help reduce the impression of its enormous size’” (Stern. 2006. Page 551).


    Trump Tower (Der Scutt of Swanke, Hayden & Conell. 1983) View looking northeast from Gotman Hotel. March 1984.




    Las Vegas glamour in New York: The Atrium and the tower

    Architectural historian, Eric P. Nash (1999) defines the architecture of the Trump Towers as “Glitzy”, and defined the work of Der Scutt (1934-2010) as “there is a strong component of kitsch, vulgarity, and glamour. Visitors come to Trump Tower to experience architecture in a way one does in few other spaces: they ride the escalators wide-eyed, heads atilt, video and flash cameras at the ready. The 58-story, 664-foot tall tower’s six-story atrium is a sensory overload” (Nash Eric P. Manhattan Skyscrapers. New York. Princeton Architectural Press. 1999. Page 143).

    Nash continues:

    Scutt learned his lessons from Las Vegas. His materials are sensuous to the point of giddiness: acres of glowing apricot Breccia Pernice marble (no wonder Italian quarrymen call marble carne, or ‘flesh’ –there is a Rubenesque carnality to the whole interior). Flattering bronze mirrors reflect the surfaces into infinity. The detailing is exact, down to the bronze Chippendale-topped showcases capped with T’s for Trump. Real-estate magnate Donald Trump is reified throughout, from awards on the wall to his personal books on display, like a latter-day Caesar” (Nash. 1999. Fragment).

    Nash also writes:
    “The surface glamour almost gets in the way of perceiving what a fine postmodern space this is. The building is about surface or, more accurately, the interpenetration of surface and space. The skylit atrium is like a carnival hall of mirrors that splinters and refracts space. From any vintage point, it is not immediately clear what is solid surface, what is reflection, and what is space perceived through glass. The result is that the whole volume of interior space is pulled apart, and left that way, like open drawers in a chest.

    Nash continues:

    “Scutt does not try to impose a modernist unity on the space: it is fragmented and discontinuous in a way that buildings never were before. Structural columns disappear behind mirrored panels that make their support seem illusory. Escalators riders seem to float on air above mirrored panels, and appear fragmented and even headless from other angles. Modernist were always on the verge pulling space apart, but sought unity; Der Scutt is happy to leave space in pieces like the shards of a broken mirror. The disjunctive properties of the interior space are even clearer now that the atrium is connected by an interior passage in a postmodern collage to the oversized basketball gym of Niketown and the IBM Building courtyard nearby” (Nash. 1999. Fragment).

    Respect to the tower’s façade elements, Eric P. Nash writes that the tower’s glass exterior is “not quite as exciting, and may have contributed to the building’s generally low critical rating. The façade sets back horizontally rather than vertically and cascades into a series of small, panted setbacks in the base. Phillip Johnson and John Burgee used a similar technique in their streamlined glass Transco Tower in Houston, completed the same year” (Nash. 1999. Fragment).

    Building elevation. April 1984. Photo: Der Scutt




    The new vertical shape of the East 56th Street with the new AT&T, Trump and IBM buildings. April 1984.





    Vulgarity glamorous architecture: Donald Trump’s Penthouse

    One of the most notable elements of the Trump Tower in the 1980s was the Donald Trump’s penthouse, all decorated in 24 K gold, that designed by Angelo Donghia under the canons of Louis XIV style, seems the exaggerated luxury and vulgar taste of Trump’s glamour. According with Stern (2006):

    “Designed by Angelo Donghia in a style that Trump described as ‘warm modern,’ it featured a rich display of opulent materials and gleaming surfaces, including onyx flooring inset with brass, a stairwell lined with beveled bronze-mirror panels, and a curving staircases with a brass banister. M. L. Aronson, writing in Architectural Digest, noted that ‘everything in the Trump’s two-story living room savors of the luxurious: from the understated chairs and sofas to a banquette covered with a fabric painted in 24K gold; to the antique Venetian-style mirror and the brown marble fireplace; up, up to the gold-leaf ceiling.’ But after visiting Saudi financier and arms dealer Adnan Khashoggi’s apartment at Olympic Tower, Trump began to feel that his own apartment was perhaps a bit too modest, and he decided to take over the adjacent triplex, which he had fortuitously kept off the market. As redone by the developer and his wife, Ivana, in 1987, the nearly doubled space was an unrestrained homage to the image, if not the reality, of the taste of Louis XIV” (Stern. 1999. Page 552).


    The Donald Trump's apartment. 1987. Photo: Frances.




    The Trump Tower in July 1988. View from Gotman Hotel. Photo: Der Scutt.





    Next, a 1984 special of AT&T Building.

    YOUR OPINION ARE VERY IMPORTANT. IF YOU DO LIKE TO MAKE SOME COMMENTARY, TO CONTRIBUITE WITH A ARTICLE OR ONLY PUT A PICTURE ON THIS THREAD, PLEASE SHOW IT. THANK YOU!!!
    Last edited by erickchristian; May 30th, 2011 at 02:15 AM. Reason: Complete information.

  8. #233

    Default

    Exceptional work. Do you have any plans for publishing all this?

  9. #234

    Default Manhattan 1980s

    1984 SPECIAL


    THE AT & T BUILDING








    POSTMODERNISM MASTERPIECE


    Hi friends!!! Welcome back of this trip through the history of New York skyscrapers during the 20th Century. Now, continuing with the 1980s, I show a great special of a building that until today is considerated all as it mean Posmodernism: the global headquarters of American Telephone & Telegraph Building (AT&T), now also know as the Sony Building.

    Designer by Phillip Johnson and John Burgee and dedicated in 1984, the 684-foot, 38-stories-high Chippendale style AT&T Building, in Madison Avenue between East 55 and 56th Streets, is renowed as a most beautiful skyscrapers in the world, and its construction brokes all the canons of the modern architecture.


    Conception

    The history of this building begun in March of 1978, when AT&T announces its intention of build its global headquartes in New York, and annonces the selection of Johnson and Burgee for the design and construction of its new skyscraper.

    According with architects biographer, Franz Schulze, in his book, Phillip Johnson. Life and Work (1994), in March 30, 1978, the American Telephone and Telegraph Company "announced planas for a new 660-foot-high-headquarters building to be erected in Madison Avenyes between Fifty-fifth and Fifty-sixth streets" (Schulze, Franz: Phillip Johnson. Life and Work. Alfred A. Knopf. New York. 1994. Page 344.

    The announcement, that was made in a press conference in the City Hall, was coincided with the announcement, two months earlier of the Edward Larrabee Barnes's IBM Building, according with architect Robert A.M Stern (2006. Page 493). Johnson and Burgee's, controversial design for the AT&T Building, according with Stern, called for a thirty-seven-story, 684-foot-high, 800,000 square-foot steel-framed tower clad in in rough-finised pink Stone Creek granite, a stone that, in the era of Beaux Arts classicism, was the material of choice, but since then had been absent from large-scale architectural construction. The scheme adopted the classical tripartite division of base, shaft, and capital, with the top in this case generating the most controversy. Rising thirty feet above the last floor was a inmense broken pediment, which caused the building to be immediately and popularly likened to either a Chippendale highboy er an eighteen-century grandfather clock, a characterization that the architects would later describe as an 'unending irritation'. although one former building on the 37,000-square-foot site, William Van Allen's Delman Building (1927), featured an abstract rendit of a broken pediment for its top, Johnson denied that it was an influence" (Stern, Robert A.M.; Fishman, David; Tilove, Jacob. New York 2000. Architecture and Urbanism Between the Bicentennial and the Millennium. New York. The Monacelli Press. 2006. Pages 493-494).


    Phillip Johnson. Study of alternative facades solutions for the AT&T Building. 1978. Photo: Archive of Affinities. Website. Link: http://archiveofaffinities.tumblr.co...ding-series-of




    AT&T definitive model. 1978. Photo from Architectural World. Blogspot. Link: http://architectural-world.blogspot....-building.html.




    Phillip Johnson with a model of AT&T Building. 1978. Photo from: Duchess Fare's website. Link: http://duchessfare.blogspot.com/2010...p-johnson.html




    Sea of criticism

    The building gained many critics from architectural specialists: Ada Louise Huxtable, for example, greets with more excepticism to the design. She refered the building as a "corporate statement in search of a Park Avenue site" (Stern. Page 496). Huxtable argue that with the AT&T Building, pedestrians "will experience only the grandeur of that massive masonry base and arcade, and the large rhythms of the colonnaded ground floor. The pediment will be an identifying symbol for the company and the architect. But the building's impact will not come from the crative power of stylistic integration of its design" (Stern. 2006. Pag 496).

    But one of the most acids criticisms against the Johnsons and Burgee's design was made by the layman, Eugene J. Johnson, who in 1978 wrote in the New York Times, that the AT&T Building's design is "in the contex of recent telephone design... The pediment is a telephone craddler, the round hole 'barroquen' in its middle, a place to insert a coin. In short Phillip Johnson has given us a Renaissance revival pay phone, an extraordinary example of the neo-classical notion of architecttura parlante" (Stern. 2006. Page 497). More far in his critics, architect Daniel Beekman, in his letter to Progressive Architecture Magazzine, reffers to the AT&T Building as "ugly as hell" (Stern. 2006. Page 497).


    Johnson's deffense

    Johnson storngly dendend his design: According with Robert Stern (2006), in December 1978, Johnson said, in a article for the Times, that the AT&T Building "which marked a distinct development of ideas he had first explored at 1001 Fifth Avenue" (Stern. 2006. Page 497). He wrote that the design means a new stylistic change in architecture in three basic respects: "'Modern' hated history, we love it. 'Modern' hated symbols, we love them. 'Modern' built the same look in any location; we search out the spirit of the place -the genius loci- for inspiration and variation'" (Stern. 2006. Fragment).

    Johnsons continues:

    "'... So in New York when John Burgee and I were faced with designing the American Telephone & Telegraph building, we had to think of the spirit of the historic New York. The architecture of New York has two greats periods -the 1890's with McKim, Mead and White, and the 1920's with Raymond Hood. So with those fine examples in front of us, we decided that here in Manhattan, the glass box maybe had had it'" (Stern. 2006. Fragment).


    Johnson success: The Time Magazine 1979 issue

    The success of his controversia for his new AT&T Building's proposal, Johnson was elevated to status of superstar. According with Schulze (1994), even the ground for the new building, "elevating Phillip from star to superstar in the architectural world. The AT&T Building was a triumph of the image-making process that had incresingly taken command of the arts in the 1970s" (Schulze. 1994. Page 344). In January 7, 1979, Time Magazine dedicated its issue to Phillip Johnson. This cover, Johnson appear holding a model of the new building with a background of Sixth Avenue's monoliths. According with Franz Schulz words, the cover was clear: Johnson appear as a Moses holding the tables of the Law (Schulze. 1994. Fragment).

    Time Magazine. January 7, 1979: Phillip Johnson and the AT&T Building. Photo: (C) Time. Inc. Link: http://205.188.238.109/time/covers/0...790108,00.html. Also review in the nex link: http://magazine-covers.lucywho.com/t...-t2779611.html




    The article, according with Schulze (1994), was written by robert Hughes, "with the style amd authority he customarily brought to his critical prose, it took the revolution of posmodernism as its subject and treated Philip as its central figure. Nowhere was it claimed he had started it, buit given the size of the new building and the reputation fo AT&T as the largest business in the world, given as well its fame and nearly steady proximity to the front of every architectural vanguard of the previous half century, it seemed indubitable that he more than anymore had legitimized the posmodernist movement. That identity was further fixed by the roles Hughes assigner other architects in his piece. Several of them, like Charles Moore and Robert Stern, had been working in the posmodernist manner longer and with more commitment than Philip had, while at least two others, Robert Ventury and the Californian Frank gehry, had made more demonstrably original contributions. Yet here they were given positions secondary to Philip, who emerged not just dean of the school but king of the hill" (Schulze, Franz. 1994. Page 345).


    Construction

    Construction of the AT&T began in January 1979 with the excavation of the land in 550 Madison Avenue, that buildings that occupied the site was demolished since one year earlier. Excavation works continues during all 1979 and part of 1980. First steel columns was put in the site in the fall of 1980 and in January 1981 the building's steel skeleton begun to rises above the street level.

    Details of the AT&T Building's base during its construction. September 1981. Photo: Columbia University. link: http://www.learn.columbia.edu/introa...8/dec8i_2.html.




    Construction workers work in the AT&T Building. September 1981. Photo: Steve Fisher. from michaelspornanimation.com. Links: http://www.michaelspornanimation.com/splog/?p=1986 (website), and http://www.michaelspornanimation.com...V/chrysler.jpg (photo).





    The steel skeleton of the AT&T Building as seen from a Park Avenue's office building. January 1982. Photo: Steve Fisher. from michaelspornanimation.com. Links: http://www.michaelspornanimation.com/splog/?p=1986 (website), and http://www.michaelspornanimation.com...t/V/AT%26T.jpg.




    The steel skeleton of the AT&T Building nearing completion. January 1982. Photo: Flickr




    The steel skeleton of the building was completed in February 1982 wile works for the facade was began. By September of 1983 the building's exterior was nearing completion. Finally the building was complete in January 1984.


    Opening: the Bell Company's monopoly scandal.

    The building was officially opened in January 1984. The opening of the new headquarters coincided with the infamous Ma Bell scandal. According with Robert Stern (2006), the inauguration of the building coincided "with the court-ordered deregulation of the company's monopoly over telephone services, breaking it into regional components and leaving AT&T itself a dramatically samaller company than the one that had originally commisioned the building" (Stern. 2006: Page 499).

    But in the architectural items, the opening of the AT&T Buildings was greeted with enthusiasm by architectural criticisms, who greets the building as the final triumph of the posmodernist movement. Susan Doubilet wrote in Progressive Architecture that the building "delivers -and this is the best news- more pleasure to passers-by than anyone would have predicted. Who could have known -distracted by those flinty drawings of a pediment granite tombstone- that the deepcut, curved, and faceted stone piers and archways of the loggia would be so palpably fine, deep, and grand; that the loftiness of the space would be so awe-inspiring; that the play of high square openings and low arches, and the bending effect of the centrally placed oculi, glimpsed through off-centere archways, would be so exquisite" (from Stern. 2006. Page 499).


    Buidling's characteristics

    The design of the AT&T was revolutionary in their time of its completion. This lines, inspired in the classicism of the Chippendale style of late 18th Century brokes the boxy lines of the neighbor monolithic skyscrapers as the Corning Glass, and the IBM Building. According with historian Donald Martin Reynolds (1984), the AT&T Building is inspired in part "by Romanesque and Gothic forms as well as other familiar historical styles, including Renaissance and eighteen-century elements. Whitin the traditional skyscraper elevation of base, shaft and capital, Johnson has carve dout of textured pink granite a base with an arched entrance six stories high. The building is capped with a broken pediment like a bonnet top, that is, a broken arch top common in cabinet furniture between 1730 and 1780. Identified with Thomas Chippendale's uses of the motif, Johnson's top has been called 'Chippendale top.'" (Reynolds, Donald Martin. The Architecture of New York City. New York. Macmillan Publishing Company. 1984. Page 163).


    The AT&T Building (Phillip Johnson and John Burgee. 1978-1984). View from 55th Street. May 1984.




    View of the new building from the Museum Tower. View looking northeast. July 1984. Photo: Payne.




    A Chippendale cabinet. 18th Century. Photo from Art Finfing.com Link: http://www.artfinding.com/Artwork/Es...3.html?LANG=es




    A recent picture of the AT&T Building showing the top details. 2005. Photo: Martin Dürrschnabel From Wikipedia. Link: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fi...y_Gebaeude.JPG




    Reynolds (1984) continues:

    "At the rear entrance, a mid-block arcade covered by a quarter arch, similar in shape to a Gothic flying buttress, which provide a covered walkway from Fifty-fifth Street to Fifty-sixth Street. This covered street lead directly to IBM's covered plaza across the street north" (Reynolds. 1984. Fragment).

    He continues:

    "The three-story-high lobby is groin vaulted and faced with pink granite. The gold-leafed vaulting appears as a great conopy for the dcolossa gold-leafed figure of Evelyn Longmo the sky-lobby an's 'Spirit of Communication,' the telephone company symbol, better know as 'Golden Boy,' the statue that stood atop AT&T Headquarters at 195 Broadway (for which it was designed) and now stands in the center of the new lobby. A massive pink-granite arcade separates the main lobby from an elevator narthex. Oversize bronze-paneled elevator cabs behind marble-arched elevator entrances spiritr you up three floors to the sky-lobby reception area, also groin vaulted but lower and broader and faced with white veinded marble. From the sky lobby wide hallways and ample stairways lad to conference rooms, office, elevator banks, and service areas. The grand proportions of these space and the exquisite white marble facing are reminscent of the interiors of AT&T's offices at 195 Broadway designed by William Welles Bosworth" (Reynolds. 1984. Fragment).


    Detail of the building's entrance. 2007. Photo: roryrory. Flickr.com from Wikipedia. Links: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fi...lding-NY-1.jpg. http://www.flickr.com/photos/roryrory/3060088508/.



    "The Sprit of the Comunication": New York City's "Lost Angel"

    One of the most memmorables and controversial details of the new buildings was the installation of the legendary figure of the "Spirit of Communication" statue on the lobby of the new AT&T Building.

    The statue was originally stood atop on the old AT&T headquarters on 195 Broadway since 1916, and was made by the sculptor Evelyn Longman and the statue was in these site.

    According with Stern (2006):

    "(...) Evelyn Beatrice Longman's tweenty-two-foot-tall, 20,000-pound statue the Spirit of Communication (1916), popularly know as Golden Boy. One of the city's largest heroic sculptures, the gilded bronze winged figure, with one arm stretched skyward grasping bolts of electricity and with coils of cable winding around its torso" (Stern. 2006. Page 494).

    According with Wikipedia:

    "The official name of the image commissioned by Western Electric to be fashioned into a statue was originally The Genius of Electricity. Commissioned in 1914, it was sculpted by Evelyn Beatrice Longman. The work was completed in 1916 and hoisted to the roof of AT&T Corporate Headquarters at 195 Broadway in the Lower Manhattan area of New York City. It weighs over 16 tons and is 24 feet (7.3 m) in height with wings that extend nine feet from the body. It is cast in bronze and covered with over 40,000 pieces of gold leaf" ("Spirit of Communication". From: Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia. Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_Boy_(AT%26T)).

    I Think that the Golden Boy statue remember me the winged figure that crowned the column of the Independence Monument in Mexico City. The size and the proportion of both monuments are similar. The difference is that while the "Angel of Independence represent a female winged victory that symbolize the victory of Mexican people against Spain, the "Golden Boy" represent a male figure that symbolize the power of electricity and the new Communication Media in the early 20th Century America.


    The Evelyn Longman's Spirit of Communication (1916) in the top of old AT&T Building. 1974. Behind it can see one of the Twin Towers of World Trade Center. Photo from Atlantic-Cable.com




    The "Angel" on the top of the Independence Monument. Mexico City. Photo: sftrajan. Flickr.com. Link: http://www.flickr.com/photos/sftrajan/2632502235/





    The Golden Boy on the top of the old AT&T Building in the Financial District. 1915. Photo: Lee Sandstead. Wired New York.com Link: http://wirednewyork.com/forum/showth...?t=8683&page=9.




    The Golden Boy in its old site (195 Broadway) in the 1960s. Photo: Lee Sandstead. Wired New York.com. Link: http://wirednewyork.com/forum/showth...?t=8683&page=9.




    The Wikipedia continues:

    "The Genius of Electricity appeared on the cover of the Bell System telephone directories for about a decade beginning in the early 1930s and became a very well known symbol for the Bell System and its affiliated companies.
    Sometime in the mid 1930s, AT&T changed the name of the statue (and the image) to The Spirit of Telecommunications. It continued to stand atop the 195 Broadway building until 1984. That year marked the opening of a new postmodern designed headquarters building for AT&T located at the AT&T Building at 550 Madison Avenue in midtown Manhattan. The roof of the new building was a sloping inverted V with a notch in the center. There was no place for a statue on the roof but AT&T management had created a massive seven story lobby that contained a specific alcove to host its well known statue and Golden Boy took up residence" (from Wikipedia. Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_Boy_(AT%26T).


    The "Spirit of Communication" statue in the lobby of the new AT&T Building. 1985. Photo: Jim in Times Square. Flickr.com. Link: http://www.flickr.com/photos/jim-in-...n/photostream/




    But, the inauguration of the AT&T new headquarters coincided with the desregulation of the great monopoly of Bell Telephone System, that leave all companies of Bell, included AT&T into small companies (Stern. 2006. Page 499). In 1991, AT&T announced that lease the entire building to the Japanese multinational electronic and entertaiment Sony Corporation and the new owner of the building decided to renovate the building and as a consecuence, the "Spirit of Communication" statue was removed and relocated on the new AT&T's suburban officed park in Basket Ridge, New Jersey in 1992 (Stern. 2006. Page 499). The statue stood in this place until 2009 when it was removed and relocated in the new AT&T World Headquarters building in Dallas, Texas. A great loss for New York.


    The "Spirit of Comunication" statue in the AT&T offices in Basket Ridge, New Jersey. 2005 (?). Photo: Lee Sandstead. Wired New York.com Link: http://wirednewyork.com/forum/showth...?t=8683&page=9




    The "Golden Boy" in his new home in Dallas, Texas. 2010. Photo: Dfwcre8tive. Wikipedia.org. Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Att_goldenboy.jpg.




    The Trump and AT&T Buildings from EMI Capitol Building. May 1984.




    The new 56th Street canyon. The AT&T Building can be seen in the left. May 1984.

    .


    Next, a general panorama of the evolution of the city skyline in 1984.


    YOUR OPINION ARE VERY IMPORTANT. IF YOU DO LIKE TO MAKE SOME COMMENTARY, TO CONTRIBUITE WITH A ARTICLE OR ONLY PUT A PICTURE ON THIS THREAD, PLEASE SHOW IT. THANK YOU!!!
    Last edited by erickchristian; June 6th, 2011 at 02:55 AM. Reason: More information

  10. #235

    Default Photos park ave. South

    Hi All,
    I just visited this site for the first time and found the aerial photos of NYC to be fantastic. I am doing research for a property, 461 Park Ave. South NE corner of 31st, and need aerial or street photos of Park Ave. heading south from the MetLife building from the 1970' and 1980's. Nothing below 32nd Street. If any one out there has any photos like this it would be greatly appreciated! You can email them direct to me at jamesdga@yahoo.com.
    Thank You All Very Much.

  11. #236

    Default Manhattan 1980s

    1984

    Hi friends!!! Welcome back on this trip through the history of the New York's skyscrapers during 20th Century. Continuing our travel trough the 1980s, now I show a general panorama of the evolution of the world's most famous skyline in 1984. These year was the cenit of the Posmodern movement, and in many other items, 1984 as a key year because many things or people that make our pop world in the 21st Century, begun to appear or made icons in these year: the compact disc, Madonna, Boy George, the Ghostbusters, the Nintendo Entertaiment System, the Apple Machintosh computer (the father of the actual Mac), the begining of rise of the capitalism the Comminist China, and other things.

    1984 was the year of the Hollywood style's Olympic Games that celebrated in Los Angeles, and Ronald Reagan won his second Presidential period in the federal elections. In the world, the HIV virus that caises AIDS was discover by Robert Gallo, in India Indira Gandhi was killed in New Delhi and a chemical disaster in a Union Carbide plant, on the Indian province of Bhopal killed 2000 people.

    In New York, under the third Koch period, the city run under the way of the economic recovery and live a new office building boom that change the Manhattan skyline, specially in Midtown, between East 39th and 61st Streets. In 1984 were completed the AT&T Building and the Trump Tower (completed in late 1983). While, the west side of Fifth Avenue the Midtown skyline continues showing the fisonomy of the early 1970s, but on Times Square first signs of urban renewal begun to show: the construction of 51-story Marriot Marquis Hotel in Broadway between 44th to 45th Street and the 54-story Equitable Center rises up on Seventh Avenue between West 51st and 52nd Streets and construction activity beguns for the Metropolitan Tower in 57th Street between Sixth and Seventh Avenues.

    In Downtown Manhattan, the increassing construction activity began to chance the face of Lower Manhattan skyline and the first two skyscrapers of the World Financial Center in the Battery Park City landfill, rises up west of the Twin Towers of the World Financial Center, creating the most memorable skyline that we enjoined until September 11, 2001.

    Buildings were completed in 1984:

    • 38-story AT&T Building
    • 52-story Museum Tower.
    • 68-story Trump Tower.
    • 40-story 1155 Sixth Avenue Building
    • 44-story Wang Building on Third Avenue and East 48th Street.
    • 32-story Republic National Bank Building
    • 40-story 500 Park Tower
    • 22-story Bank of America Building
    • 40-story 575 Fifth Avenue Building
    • 34-story One Seaport Plaza
    • 30-story Novotel
    • 30-story Republic National Bank Building

    Construction activity continues for the next skyscrapers:
    • 44-story One World Financial Center
    • 54-story Three World Financial Center (American Express Building).
    • 45-story Tower 45 (the building were completed in late 1984, but it was open in 1985).
    • 71-story Metropolitan Tower
    • 30-story 33 Maiden Lane Office Building
    • 32-story Four World Financial Center (excavation. The building begun to rises up in late 1984).
    • 53-story Marriott Marquis Hotel, at Times Square
    • 55-story Equitable Center.
    Construction activity begun for the next skyscrapers:
    • 45-story Two World Financial Center (excavation)
    • 72-story City Spire (demolition of existing buildings and excavation)
    • 45-story Manhattan Building (demolition of existing buildings and excavation)
    • 36-story Park Avenue Tower (demolition of existing buildings and excavation)
    • 25-story Nasdaq Building (demolition of existing building and excavation. The building begun to rises up in late 1984).
    • 48-story 599 Lexington Avenue (demolition of existing buildings and excavation. The building begun to rises up in late 1984).
    • 47-story 7 World Trade Center (demolition of old WTC power plant and excavation).

    Next, a general panorama of the city skyline of 1984:

    The new 58-story Trump Tower. March 1984.




    Sixth Avenue's canyons looking southwest from CBS Building's plaza. April 1984.




    New Madison Avenue and 56th Street's canyon: AT&T (1984), Corning Glass (1959), Trump (1983) and IBM (1983) buildings: April 1984.




    The new 52-story Museum of Modern Art Tower (Cesar Pelli). View from Fifth Avenue and 53rd Street. April 1984.




    The Trump Tower. April 1984. Photo: Norman McGrath.




    101 Barclay Street Building (Skidmore, Owings & Merril. 1983). May 1984.




    One and Two United Nations Plaza. May 1984.





    The AT&T Building (Phillip Johnson & John Burgee). View from Park Avenue and 55th Street. May 1984.




    AT&T Building and Trump Tower. May 1984.




    The 85 Broad Street Building. June 1984.




    Night view of Empire State and Chrysler Buildings. June 1984.




    The 101 Park Avenue Building. July 1984.




    Midtown Manhattan looking east from Museum Tower. July 1984. Buildings from left to right is the Trump Tower, the AT&T Building, 919 Thrid Avenue Building, 535 Madison Avenue and Citicorp Center. Photo: Payne.




    The 44-story Wang Building (Skidmore, Owings & Merril). July 1984.




    500 Park Avenue Tower. September 1984.




    Aerial view of Manhattan island looking north showing the construction of first two buildings for the World Financial Center on Battery Park City landfill in the extreme left. October 1984. Photo 1 of 2.





    Photo 2 of 2.




    Midtown Manhattan looking north from Empire State Building. Green empty octogonal building on the center (above the 500 Fifth Avenue Tower) is the new Tower 45 nearing completion. October 1984.





    Night view of Midtown Manhattan skyline looking west from Queens. November 1984.




    Night view of Lower Manhattan looking east from Hudson River. December 1984.





    Next, a 1985 special of the Marriott Marquis Hotel: Times Square begun to rises from its ashes.

    YOUR OPINION ARE VERY IMPORTANT. IF YOU DO LIKE TO MAKE SOME COMMENTARY, TO CONTRIBUITE WITH A ARTICLE OR ONLY PUT A PICTURE ON THIS THREAD, PLEASE SHOW IT. THANK YOU!!!

  12. #237

    Default

    Great stuff! Thanks for posting it all!!

  13. #238

    Default

    I found a photo black and white of new york from the satten island ferry Click image for larger version. 

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  14. #239

    Default

    That's a fresh one. The ones under construction must be WFC.

  15. #240

    Default

    Erik- great stuff. Do you happen to have any images of Park Ave South in the 1970's looking south? The building is 461 Park Ave South. I have attached some thumbnails to show you what I am looking for.


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