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Thread: WTC Tower One - by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill

  1. #4621

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    Interesting. They did the same kind of tests for the Burj Dubai facade, although they also threw sand in front of the wind machines. At least New York doesn't have sand storms!

  2. #4622
    Disgruntled Optimist lofter1's Avatar
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    Replicas of New Tower Endure Nature’s Fury
    and a Test Blast


    Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
    A mock-up of the Freedom Tower at the World Trade Center, in Ontario, Calif.,
    was built to be exposed to extreme conditions.

    NY TIMES
    David W. Dunlap
    April 9, 2008

    One World Trade Center has not yet emerged from below ground, but its facade has already survived earthquakes, hurricanes and an explosion that shook the earth a quarter-mile away.

    In recent months, two full-size mock-ups of a few floors of the glass and aluminum facade have been built and tested. One is outside Los Angeles, in Ontario, Calif. The other was at a site in central New Mexico that can be reached only over dirt roads in four-wheel-drive vehicles.

    At 1,368 feet, with 23 acres of glass-clad surface area, 1 World Trade Center will be subject to tremendous natural forces. The building, also known as the Freedom Tower (at a symbolic 1,776 feet, when its mast is counted), will be the tallest in New York City and as the skyscraping phoenix on the site of ground zero, it may be the target of terrorist attacks, too.

    The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, which is building 1 World Trade Center, and Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, which designed it, said both mock-ups performed well. The facade, called a curtain wall, is being made by Benson Industries of Portland, Ore. The engineering firm Weidlinger Associates is the consultant in blast-resistant design.

    “Physical testing is a confirmation that curtain-wall contractors are in fact meeting performance requirements,” said Carl Galioto, a Skidmore partner. “Full fabrication of the curtain wall cannot begin until the mock-up specimen passes these tests.”

    Almost invisible to passers-by, the foundations of 1 World Trade Center are rising every day toward street level.

    The first mock-up was subjected to a blast test in Socorro, N.M., at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center, a division of the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. Because details might arm a prospective attacker — providing information like how much force the curtain wall is designed to withstand — officials would say almost nothing about the test of this mock-up.

    “The simple answer is, yes, it passed,” said John McCullough, the project executive for the Port Authority.

    He was more forthcoming about the tests last month at Construction Consulting Laboratory West in California. There, a $537,000 mock-up was built to represent a corner of three typical tower floors, with laminated glass panes one and a half inches thick. The largest are 5 feet by 13 feet and weigh half a ton. An enclosed steel chamber was constructed behind the glass and aluminum cladding.

    The goal was to find out how much air and water leakage could be expected under storm conditions that could be expected at least once in 50 years.

    Water jets simulating winds of 74 miles per hour were sprayed at the facade. During the 15-minute test cycle, each square foot of glass was hit with more than a gallon of water.

    In another test, a dismounted airplane propeller was switched on to simulate even-stronger and more-scattered winds. “It’s pretty colorful,” said Mr. Galioto, who witnessed the test. “It’s very noisy. Water is blowing in every direction and smoke is blowing from the engine.”

    Air infiltration is measured by gauges. Water infiltration is measured by witnesses who are inside the chamber.

    “Water is coming into the face of the curtain wall with such intensity that you can’t see,” said Bruce Fox, the deputy project executive for the Port Authority. “Then you’re looking into and opening up all the different pieces to see if there’s any evidence of leakage.” There was none.

    Hydraulic jacks were used to simulate the different horizontal sway of various floors, both fully occupied and empty. The surface was also chilled to 10 degrees (refrigerated piping was applied to the glass) and baked at 100 degrees (by heat lamps).

    Gusts up to 167 m.p.h. were simulated by using pumps to pull air out of the chamber, creating a condition in which the external air pressure was far greater than the internal pressure. The process was reversed, too, by pumping air into the chamber, simulating conditions on the side of the tower away from the wind.

    An earthquake was simulated by jacks pulling the mock-up in different directions. Finally, a much stronger earthquake was simulated. At this point, the designers no longer expected the mock-up to remain airtight and watertight. But the criteria required that no glass could crack and no panes could be dislodged.

    Mr. McCullough of the Port Authority said the mock-up met all the performance criteria.

    And Mr. Fox marveled: “Sometimes on these tests, you have to do forensics and do corrections. Here, we had no failure at all.”

    Copyright 2008 The New York Times Company

  3. #4623
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    That's actually an attractive cladding!

  4. #4624
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    awesome. FU alqaeda.

  5. #4625

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    I like the flag on the mockup.

  6. #4626

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    The glass reminds me of that on Philly's new Comcast Center, which is a good thing IMO.

  7. #4627

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    The glass and metal look great. It looks better than the treatment on Comcast Center, it looks more along the lines of 7 World Trade Center where the treatment is absolutely superb. I wish David used this glass on TWC.

  8. #4628

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    Couldnt agree more guys, especially regarding TWC.

  9. #4629

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    Quote Originally Posted by BrooklynLove View Post
    awesome. FU alqaeda.
    well said.

  10. #4630
    I admit I have a problem
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    Angry No outdoor observation deck!!

    April 9, 2008, 2:40 pm
    On a Clear Day, You Can See Connecticut
    By DAVID W. DUNLAP




    The scene atop and from the observation deck of the World Trade Center in May 1999. (Photo: Fred R. Conrad/The New York Times)


    With the Freedom Tower headed steadily skyward (though not yet in view of sidewalk superintendents), the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey is looking ahead to the moment when the public will want a slice of that sky.

    It said Wednesday that it has begun searching for a private operator for the observation area planned on the 102nd floor of the tower, also known as 1 World Trade Center. Early next month, the authority will ask prospective candidates for their qualifications. Qualified bidders will be asked to submit proposals at the end of 2008. A firm will be chosen in early 2009. The observation area is expected to open in 2012.

    At 1,300 feet above street level, the new observation area will be about 10 feet lower than the one atop the south tower of the original trade center. The new observation area will be about half the size and will not include an outdoor deck. Ogden Corporation operated the old observation deck under a lease from the Port Authority.

    “The observation deck that sat atop 2 World Trade Center prior to 9/11 was a can’t-miss stop for those who lived and worked in Lower Manhattan, as well as two million tourists who visited each year, generating business for local merchants and others,” Anthony R. Coscia, the chairman of the authority, said in a statement. “We intend to recreate the same experience for future generations.”

    Anthony E. Shorris, the executive director of the authority, said the observation deck was also intended to help make the tower “an open, lively public space integrated with the rest of the city.”

    In the first step of its search for a restaurant operator at the top of the Freedom Tower in January, the Port Authority received 11 responses.

  11. #4631

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    Maybe Blackwater can manage the observation area.

  12. #4632
    Kings County Loyal BrooklynLove's Avatar
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    startling to think how much has happened in the city and the world in less than 10 years since when that photo was snapped

  13. #4633

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    That picture is almost like heaven, I cant remember life before 9/11, when i was a tender 15 years old.

  14. #4634

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    Quote Originally Posted by alonzo-ny View Post
    That picture is almost like heaven, I cant remember life before 9/11, when i was a tender 15 years old.
    Thats so true. I was 15 yrs old when it happened too, saw it from my High School classroom. And funny too, I live in Astoria as well. Ha!

    I'm eager for the Freedom Tower to start rising, it's gonna be a good next couple of years.

  15. #4635
    Kings County Loyal BrooklynLove's Avatar
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    i don't think that i'll get over 9-11 until this is all completely rebuilt - not until then will this be a memory instead of a current event in my view.

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