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Thread: WTC Memorial - by Michael Arad (Architect) and Peter Walker (Landscape)

  1. #4156

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    Chicago Tribune
    August 15, 2011

    A First Look at the National September 11th Memorial

    By Blair Kamin, Tribune architecture critic

    It is not enough for the National September 11 Memorial, which will open here in a little less than a month, to provide a venue for the public expression of grief. Because the memorial sits amid one of the nation's great urban centers, not on a rural battlefield or the National Mall, it must meet a higher standard, one that is as much about renewal as remembrance and public space as much as private meditation.

    Assessing whether the memorial has attained these goals is a perilous business. It remains a construction site, not a serene enclave. Its two signature reflecting pools, which evoke the destroyed twin towers, are not yet fully operational, and as of last Wednesday, just 254 of its 415 swamp white oak trees had been planted. Visitors have not inhabited the site, which opens to the public Sept. 12, one day after the 10th anniversary of the terrorist attacks.

    Nonetheless, with the broad outlines of the memorial finally in place, some initial observations can be made: It is not a work of blazing aesthetic originality. But it appears poised to pack a powerful emotional punch and may help ground zero's rebuilders to achieve the seemingly impossible goal of simultaneously commemorating the dead and creating a lively city.

    The second part of the $700 million project, an underground museum, is scheduled to open next year, according to the National September 11 Memorial & Museum, the organization that spearheaded the memorial's construction and will manage it.

    As shaped by New York architect Michael Arad and Berkeley, Calif., landscape architect Peter Walker, the memorial occupies roughly half of the 16-acre World Trade Center site. At its heart are the reflecting pools, each an acre in size and set within the footprints of the destroyed twin towers. Ringing the perimeter of the pools are elegant bronze panels displaying the names of those killed on 9/11 in New York, Washington and Shanksville, Pa., and in the 1993 bombing of the trade center -- in all, 2,983 men, women and children. Water cascades into the pools, then drops again into a square void in the middle of each pool. The bottoms of the square voids can be glimpsed, but not in their entirety.

    Arad's aim, as the 42-year-old architect told me during a tour, was to "evoke a persistent absence, one that isn't erased by the passage of time."

    He has done so in a way that is less cloying than the empty chairs at the memorial that recognizes the victims of the 1995 bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, but it is not especially fresh.

    Indeed, anyone who has seen the black granite wedge of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington is bound to remark upon its superficial similarities to the September 11 Memorial. (That memorial's designer, Maya Lin, was a powerful force on the jury that in 2003 plucked a design by the unknown Arad from 5,201 entries, then suggested that he team up with a veteran landscape architect, who turned out to be Walker. Their design was named the winner in 2004.)

    Both memorials are works of abstract minimalism, which emphasizes simple geometric shapes and minimal amounts of color and texture. Yet if the Vietnam Veterans Memorial was novel and captivating when it opened 29 years ago, it is hard to say that about the September 11 Memorial today. Rows of victims' names have practically become a cliche.

    But memorials are not built to impress critics with the latest aesthetic fashions. They exist to remember and honor the dead -- in this case, those who were killed by terrorists in 1993 and 2001. And the September 11 memorial seems likely to achieve that goal, in large part due to its deviations from minimalist abstraction.

    There is something distinctly nonabstract about a ring of trees around the reflecting pools: The trees precisely replicate the footprints of the twin towers, 212 feet by 212 feet each, as surely as the pools evoke the towers' absence. This isn't slavish nostalgia or pandering to the families of the victims. Rooting the memorial in the particular qualities of its site sends a clear message: This is where people were murdered, where the towers pancaked downward in an apocalyptic vision of smoke, fire and ash. This is not a memorial that could be anywhere; it could only have been built here.

    The waterfalls, expected to be flowing constantly once the memorial opens, further relieve its abstractness. During my first visit to the site last week, they were turned off, and the memorial appeared painfully austere, almost a visual bore. Then, during my second tour, the waterfalls came on -- and what a difference they made. They endowed the memorial with luminosity, animation, delight and a strong focus. The wind makes the waterfalls arc outward in ever-changing patterns. As the sun slices into the mist, small rainbows appear. "A happy discovery," said Arad, who had not expected that his design would produce this symbol of hope.

    Rows of victims' names may be overused, but there is still something endearing about the way Arad and his firm, Handel Architects, have displayed them. At night, light will shine upward from the names, which are incised into the bronze panels. The names are also arranged into "meaningful adjacencies" that reflect the victims' proximity on 9/11. Those who perished in the former 1 World Trade Center, also known as the north tower, are memorialized along the north pool, for example. So are the crew and passengers of American Airlines Flight 11, the plane that hit that tower.

    Not every name is so appropriately linked to a specific place -- the police and firefighters killed on 9/11 are all honored at the south pool -- but the special arrangements add to the memorial's touching specificity.

    It is hard not to imagine groups of families or next of kin visiting together and hugging. The names suggest that the dead should be mourned collectively -- and that public spaces are an appropriate venue for such commemoration in addition to their everyday roles of accommodating recreation and relaxation.

    Indeed, one question about the memorial is how its managers will balance these roles -- in essence, whether the memorial's identity as sacred ground will snuff out the very activities it is supposed to invite. Would a visitor be allowed to play Frisbee there? Walk the dog? The National September 11 Memorial & Museum will need to strike a balance between dignity and vitality as it sets the rules for using this public space.

    More important issues arise from the memorial's relationship to New York: Will the memorial be good for the city? And will the city be good for the memorial? Here, there is reason for both hope and caution.

    If nothing else, the vast, light-filled open space stands in stark contrast to the dark canyons of lower Manhattan. Its enormous scale suggests the magnitude of the loss, both to individuals and the nation, on 9/11. But size alone is hardly the measure of a great urban space.

    One of the most appealing aspects of the memorial is that it doesn't repeat the urban planning mistakes of the original World Trade Center. The trade center's plaza became an emblem of the barren, wind-swept open spaces that architects were putting up alongside steel-and-glass skyscrapers in the 1960s, deadening and dehumanizing cities in the process. In addition, the memorial improves upon architect Daniel Libeskind's ground zero master plan by dispensing with its poetic but impractical idea of an excavated pit that would have beckoned visitors to journey down to bedrock.

    Instead, the memorial is at street level, which will allow pedestrians to flow directly into it from surrounding streets. Walker and one of his partners at PWP Landscape Architecture, Matthew Donham, have softened its starkness with rows of swamp white oaks that are arranged at random intervals, like the beads on an abacus.

    The trees, which will grow to double their current height of 25-30 feet, lend the sprawling site shade, texture and an innate human scale. When the wind blows, their rustling leaves provide an added layer of sound atop the waterfalls, muffling the noise of traffic. Clearings provide much-needed open spaces, such as an area in the memorial's southwest corner where the victims' names are expected to be read every Sept. 11. The landscape architects wisely have forgone the crowd-pleasing exuberance of perennials in favor of a more sober plant palette of the trees and ground cover. A survivor tree, a Callery pear that lost all of its limbs in the attacks but has since grown new ones, is a powerful symbol of resilience and regeneration.

    Granite benches are distributed generously, offering visitors a place to sit, linger or converse.

    All in all, then, the memorial seems well-positioned to attract casual, everyday visitors as well as those who make pilgrimages.

    But this is ground zero, where nothing is ever simple. Initially, visitors to the memorial will have to make ticket reservations and pass through a security checkpoint at the site's southwest corner. The arrangement is to last about 18 months, Arad said. But due to the persistent threat of terrorism, it is not hard to imagine that the site's managers, pressed by politicians, might find reason to extend it. For the foreseeable future, at least, the noble idea of reintegrating the memorial with the city street grid remains little more than fantasy.

    There is also reason for apprehension about the four enormous office towers being built around the memorial. Three, including the planned 1,776-foot 1 World Trade Center, will rise to heights taller than 1,000 feet. The fourth will climb to nearly 1,000 feet. True, the towers will form the equivalent of walls that frame the memorial, transforming it into what architects call an "urban room." And the people working in them will bring vitality to the memorial. But their scale is nothing less than staggering and offers perhaps the biggest reason to be concerned that the redevelopment of ground zero will leave us with a new version of the twin towers' old, city-deadening gigantism.

    Striking an appropriate balance between the commemorative and the commercial has always been ground zero's greatest urban planning challenge. But as the 10th anniversary of the attacks approaches and one looks back at all the battles that made these hallowed 16 acres a capital of contention -- clashing architectural visions, political posturing and esoteric legal fights -- there should at least be relief about the memorial.

    Some will mistake its toughness for cold starkness, but the design derives its strength from its unflinching stoicism and specificity. "We were memorializing a loss," said Paula Grant Berry, a member of the memorial jury, whose husband was killed in the attacks, as she gazed out on the waterfalls in the north pool. Though not profoundly original, the memorial still rises to a level of noble simplicity, one that could well be enhanced by the presence of people and their interaction with the victims' names and each other.

    Copyright 2011 Associated Press

  2. #4157
    Fearless Photog RoldanTTLB's Avatar
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    This guy had me until the end and the remarks about gigantism. He was much more correct earlier on. It's the pedestrian spaces that drive the whole thing. The human element of a skyscraper is not at its apex. The buildings could be 5 stories or 5,000 stories, it's still about the first dozen feet where they meet the ground that defines people's daily interactions with them.

  3. #4158

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    Quote Originally Posted by scumonkey View Post
    yes we could, and i for one do not believe the pools themselves were meant to literally reflect anything.
    ??????!!!!!?!?!?!?!?!?!?!?!?!!!!!! In the 3 or 4 years that I've been posting on this forum, this is the most outrageous thing I've ever heard. This is like someone saying, "I don't believe anyone ever claimed that there were supposed to be literal trees planted on the plaza." It reminds me of when John McCain a few months back outrageously said, "I do not believe I've ever called myself a maverick." From Day 1 that the design for the memorial was unveiled, they've been described as reflecting pools. In fact the official website for memorial, 911memorial.org, describes them as reflecting pools numerous times. Additionally, every single rendering thus far depicts them as reflecting the sky/background. I'm sorry but I never thought I would ever hear someone say that no one ever claimed the design was meant to reflect anything. You can't possibly look at the rendering below and tell me that it was never suggested that the reflecting pools were ever "meant to literally reflect anything"...



    Agreed, however I would argue not the type of "reflecting" you are wishfully thinking about.
    "Wishing" has nothing to do with anything. It's what we were told from day one was the design of the memorial - two twin reflecting pools within the footprints of the towers.

    That's because they ARE the type of "reflecting" pools you keep wishing these were.
    Have you ever actually seen a pool of water disturbed by a tremendous waterfall (or even a little one), reflect anything...anywhere else?
    That is EXACTLY what I stated in my post that you were replying to! I've been following this long enough to remember hearing (from the architect, officials in the construction, as well as people on this board) that when completed the pools were to be reflection pools. Which BY DEFINITION, are reflective, and that doesn't mean in some metaphorical sense. Look I'm not trying to bash anyone or anything. I've invested as much, if not more, of myself into this memorial over the last 4 years and 4 months as anyone else here. I was just re-watching the video I shot in September 2009 when I'm walking around inside the North pool and I say to my tour guide, "Wow, this thing is going to be BEAUTIFUL when it's finished." (At the time I was taken aback because it's so much bigger standing inside it in person than can possibly be portrayed in any picture.) For over four years I envisioned the memorial as two reflecting pools, peacefully reflecting sky and clouds and encircling trees. Why? Because this is what we were told by the designers. This is what all the renderings depicted. No one ever said the pools would be pure black, reflecting nothing. Black is evocative of death and destruction, the absolute LAST thing you want to have for a memorial to the fallen Twin Towers. I know it's too late to fix any of these mistakes, but it's just disappointing.
    Last edited by RKOwens44; August 18th, 2011 at 04:05 PM.

  4. #4159

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    ??????!!!!!?!?!?!?!?!?!?!?!?!!!!!! In the 3 or 4 years that I've been posting on this forum, this is the most outrageous thing I've ever heard
    You may have been posting for 3 or 4 years (even though your profile shows you've only been a member for less than a year), but if this is the most outrageous thing you've ever heard, you must not read the forum very often
    You can't possibly look at the rendering below and tell me that it was never suggested that the reflecting pools were ever "meant to literally reflect anything"...
    Yes I can...It's common for an artist drawing an architectural rendering to put reflections in what is supposed to represent water. It's done simply to reinforce the fact that it's water- not necessarily meant to show how the water will or will not reflect anything. It's just a RENDERING I'm also sure I don't need to tell you that most renderings look vastly different than what actually gets built.
    As I have stated before, I believe the pools are meant to make one inwardly reflect on what has happened at the site- not literately reflect the sky.
    Wishing" has nothing to do with anything. It's what we were told from day one was the design of the memorial- two twin reflecting pools within the footprints of the towers.
    Yes it does...if your wishing the word "reflecting", as used for this proposal, was meant as in reflecting sky, clouds, and trees.
    Can you show me anywhere in any proposal where it specifically states that the water in the pools was meant to peacefully reflect the sky, clouds or surrounding trees
    For over four years I envisioned the memorial as two reflecting pools, peacefully reflecting sky and clouds and encircling trees.
    You stated "as I envision" -and that does not necessarily mean that's what the designers envisioned...
    It's just common sense- agitated water does not reflect. To believe that the biggest man made waterfalls in the country, dumping thousands of gallons of water into a shallow pool below,
    would actually leave the water still enough to actually reflect sky and clouds and encircling trees...
    I'm sorry but to me, that just sounds like 4 years of wishful thinking...
    and I also doubt that the way they turned out is a "mistake", but I won't deny that for YOU it's just disappointing.
    To me they look just like what I was expecting- based on the written proposals.

  5. #4160

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    Quote Originally Posted by scumonkey View Post
    You may have been posting for 3 or 4 years (even though your profile shows you've only been a member for less than a year), but if this is the most outrageous thing you've ever heard, you must not read the forum very often
    I created a new username (RKOwens44) because I lost the password to my original account (RKOwens4) about a year ago and didn't have access to my old email or something, but I've been following the webcams since April 2007 and started posting on this forum on June 9, 2008 (according to RKOwens4's profile).

    As I have stated before, I believe the pools are meant to make one inwardly reflect on what has happened at the site- not literately reflect the sky.
    Of course inward reflection is the purpose of the memorial, but there are countless famous reflecting pools in the world and the purpose of them... is to reflect! Yes, to LITERALLY reflect!

    You stated "as I envision" -and that does not necessarily mean that's what the designers envisioned...
    Somehow I knew when I was writing that that you were going to try to take my words out of context there. As I said many, many times in my last message, we were TOLD by the architect, by the official websites, and by the builders via the Port Authority's Q&A that these were reflecting pools and even saw them depicted as such in literally dozens of renderings and animations. I said because of this, I always envisioned them as reflection pools. I knew you were going to cut off the context of my statement and quote where I said "I envisioned" to try to make it sound like this was purely my assumption based on nothing else.

    It's just common sense- agitated water does not reflect. To believe that the biggest man made waterfalls in the country, dumping thousands of gallons of water into a shallow pool below, would actually leave the water still enough to actually reflect sky and clouds and encircling trees...
    Maybe you should see what I wrote in post #4148: "They also reflect nothing (which should have been predicted to begin with, the waterfalls simply disturb the water way, way too much for that to be possible)." As I said then, they should have been able to predict that the initial design was flawed from the very beginning. Granted, nothing like this has ever been built before (biggest man-made waterfalls and such), but they should have figured out early on, even before they began the full scale testing, that you can't have a reflecting pool surrounded by waterfalls, since it would disturb the water too much.

    To me they look just like what I was expecting- based on the written proposals.
    Show me one single instance in which the designers or websites described the memorial pools as being black voids. I can (and have) shown you countless instances in which the pools were described as reflecting pools. In every single rendering they're depicted as reflecting pools - show me a single rendering in which they appear as black voids. I can think of only two types of people who can say, "I prefer blackness and darkness."...

    1.) A gothic person who wears all black clothes and black makeup, or...
    2.) An apologist
    Last edited by RKOwens44; August 19th, 2011 at 01:06 AM.

  6. #4161

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    Was Arad's intention to create two reflecting pools? If so, why would he have over 24,000 gallons of water per minute falling 30 feet into a pool? Maybe you expected the water surface to be calm, but I didn't.

    The error wasn't in the realization of the design; the error was in the improper use of the term reflecting pool in PA and memorial literature. If you don't like the way the voids look, then you didn't like them from the beginning. How they were described to you wasn't going to change how they look.

    I can think of only two types of people who can say, "I prefer blackness and darkness."...

    1.) A gothic person who wears all black clothes and black makeup, or...
    2.) An apologist
    When you use a straw-man in an attempt to get moral superiority in a discussion, you often come across as ridiculous.

    So "I'm disappointed with the memorial"

    becomes...

    "Anyone who likes the memorial is inferior to me."

  7. #4162

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    This obsession over the exact details of things like water reflection is absolutely nauseating. Light and water will act in their own way and its a little bizarre to be so upset over something so trivial. It's water which is in constant motion, affected by the wind. It is not a puddle left behind after a rain storm.

  8. #4163

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    Quote Originally Posted by RKOwens44 View Post
    Black is evocative of death and destruction
    That's what happened - death and destruction.

    the absolute LAST thing you want to have for a memorial to the fallen Twin Towers.
    Aren't you forgetting something?

  9. #4164

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    I created a new username (RKOwens44) because
    Time here acknowledged: but the point was if this is the most outrageous thing you've ever heard, you must not read the forum very often
    there are countless famous reflecting pools in the world and the purpose of them... is to reflect! Yes, to LITERALLY reflect!
    I'm not arguing that point with you....I am disagreeing with you that these pools are supposed to reflect the same way all the rest do.
    Somehow I knew when I was writing that that you were going to try to take my words out of context there. As I said many, many times in my last message, we were TOLD by the architect, by the official websites, and by the builders via the Port Authority's Q&A that these were reflecting pools and even saw them depicted as such in literally dozens of renderings and animations. I said because of this, I always envisioned them as reflection pools. I knew you were going to cut off the context of my statement and quote where I said "I envisioned" to try to make it sound like this was purely my assumption based on nothing else.
    I'm not trying to make it sound like anything that it's not... the whole quote:
    For over four years I envisioned the memorial as two reflecting pools, peacefully reflecting sky and clouds and encircling trees. Why? Because this is what we were told by the designers. This is what all the renderings depicted. No one ever said the pools would be pure black, reflecting nothing.
    You were told by the designers...told what-that they are reflecting pools...did you ever ask any of those designers what type of reflecting they were talking about, or did you just assume it meant the type that reflects sky, clouds, and trees? I have also stated that the renderings were just that- RENDERINGS not photographic snapshots of what is supposed to be, drawn by an artist, using artistic license to make a point- THIS IS WATER. The easiest way to convey that in a RENDERING is with a reflection. Also the pools are not "pure Black".
    Maybe you should see what I wrote in post #4148: "They also reflect nothing (which should have been predicted to begin with, the waterfalls simply disturb the water way, way too much for that to be possible)." As I said then, they should have been able to predict that the initial design was flawed from the very beginning. Granted, nothing like this has ever been built before (biggest man-made waterfalls and such), but they should have figured out early on, even before they began the full scale testing, that you can't have a reflecting pool surrounded by waterfalls, since it would disturb the water too much.
    This is why I think your interpretation is all wrong.You state they should have been able to predict that the initial design was flawed from the very beginning...If the pools were not meant to actually reflect blue sky's etc., then that would mean that the pools do NOT have a "design flaw" that got past all the experts from the beginning, (i still find it hard to believe that all those experts would miss something this obvious- especially with it being an easy fix ).
    This part of your statement: "you can't have a reflecting pool surrounded by waterfalls, since it would disturb the water way, way too much..." is just plain FALSE.
    I've been building fountains, and pools with moving water in them for years- granted not on this scale but...enough to know the simple engineering fact that if they wanted the water to actually reflect sky etc. then all they had to do was put baffles at the bottom of the pool, around the outside perimeter of where the water actually falls. They would have to just touch the surface water in the pools, stopping it from disrupting any of the water behind them. Simple cut outs in the underwater portion of the baffles would allow the water to flow freely underneath without disturbing the surface, and allowing it to flow freely into the inner void.
    Show me one single instance in which the designers or websites described the memorial pools as being black voids.
    Show me one single instance where I have stated that either ?!
    I can (and have) shown you countless instances in which the pools were described as reflecting pools.
    Yes but you have not shown that your interpretation of the word reflecting is the one that was being used.
    In every single rendering they're depicted as reflecting pools - show me a single rendering in which they appear as black voids.
    Again- they are just renderings - artistic interpretations, and what's up with all this "Black Voids" hyperbole- even the way the pools are now, they are far from just Black voids.
    They are pools filled with dynamic water- not black voids. The water does not look black, and I read that there were little rainbows of colour appearing around
    the falls from the mist in the wind.
    I can think of only two types of people who can say, "I prefer blackness and darkness."...

    1.) A gothic person who wears all black clothes and black makeup, or...
    2.) An apologist
    Then you need to think harder, #1: black clothes and black makeup does not necessarily mean your goth (hell Growing up it just meant you lived in Manhattan, or were an artist).
    #2 An Apologist

    -a
    person who makes a defense in speech or writing of a belief, idea, etc.
    That covers a lot of ground- but what it has to do with anyone that likes black is beyond my comprehension.

    You go right on believing what you want (and be disappointed)- I'm not, and I'll agree to dissagree with you.

  10. #4165
    Crabby airline hostess - stache's Avatar
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    It's not like anyone will be forced to visit.

  11. #4166

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    I'd like to know if the water flow will be strong enough to pick up coins off of the floor of the pools or not. These things are going to be layered with peoples dirty pennies, especially after it is fully open to walking public and not just ticketed guests.

  12. #4167

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    Quote Originally Posted by Fimiak View Post
    I'd like to know if the water flow will be strong enough to pick up coins off of the floor of the pools or not. These things are going to be layered with peoples dirty pennies, especially after it is fully open to walking public and not just ticketed guests.
    There's actually filters (right under the lip that leads to the center void) to pick up pennies and debris like that.

  13. #4168

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    Quote Originally Posted by ZippyTheChimp View Post
    When you use a straw-man in an attempt to get moral superiority in a discussion, you often come across as ridiculous.

    So "I'm disappointed with the memorial"

    becomes...

    "Anyone who likes the memorial is inferior to me."
    Two questions: Do you know the meaning of a straw-man argument? And do you know the definition of irony? Because what I said was not a straw-man AT ALL. In post #4153 scumonkey gave his opinion: "The falls feeding those choppy turbulent waters, swirling into the deeper darker depths of the lower central void... makes me think of absence and loss a whole lot more than a blue sky, and some shiny glass buildings reflecting back up at me. But that is just me- to each his own." Here he is saying that he prefers water falling into darker depths over reflecting pools reflecting the sky and surrounding buildings. I made no straw-man. You, however, then immediately followed up by saying that I claim, "Anyone who likes the memorial is inferior to me." So I ask you, do you know the definition of irony? I never said I dislike the memorial (in fact the opposite - my post that started this whole exchange was about how badass the pools look at night, I just said that there's a few aspects that are disappointing) and I also never said that anyone is inferior to me (in fact the opposite - I said all along that this was my own opinion and that I'm not trying to bash anyone). The very opening post to this thread says, "This thread is solely for discussing the merits or lack thereof of Reflecting Absence." But suddenly when I give my opinion and say that I'm disappointed that the pools are purely black and reflect nothing, suddenly I've commited treason against the Port Authority for saying anything critical.

  14. #4169

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    Quote Originally Posted by ZippyTheChimp View Post
    That's what happened - death and destruction.

    Aren't you forgetting something?
    PLEASE tell me you aren't suggesting that the design of the 9/11 memorial should pay tribute to death and destruction. Before you try to say I'm making a straw-man argument, I just want to be clear that this is what you're saying. If this were the intention of the memorial, then they should get rid of the water (which is a symbol of life and renewal) and the trees too (again, a symbol of life). The memorial is and rightfully should be a symbol of life (not death) and renewal (not destruction).

  15. #4170

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    Quote Originally Posted by scumonkey View Post
    I have also stated that the renderings were just that- RENDERINGS not photographic snapshots of what is supposed to be, drawn by an artist, using artistic license to make a point- THIS IS WATER. The easiest way to convey that in a RENDERING is with a reflection. Also the pools are not "pure Black".
    If it was their intention for the pools to be black voids, this would have been the easiest thing in the world to depict in a rendering. I mean, literally. Just show the base and walls as black with a layer of rippling water in the pool and waterfalls. Anyone who works with Photoshop knows that it is 100 times more difficult for them to go out of their way to show the pools as reflecting the surroundings. Look at the animation on the main page of wtc.com (click on 4/5 to skip ahead to the relevant part). They had to put great effort into calculating the position of the buildings and their movement as the "videocamera" moves around. It would have been far easier to simply have them reflecting nothing. So don't say they only depicted reflections in the pools because it made their work easier.

    #2 An Apologist

    -a
    person who makes a defense in speech or writing of a belief, idea, etc.
    That covers a lot of ground- but what it has to do with anyone that likes black is beyond my comprehension.
    Jeez. How many times in a day can a person be misrepresented? I said only two types of people could be thrilled with black walled and black based pools: gothic people OR apologists. I neither said nor implied that apologists were gothic or liked black or whatever you think I said. If you've been around here long enough, you'll know that there ARE apologists who, for example, will say that they love the design of the glass prism base around 1WTC and that it's their favorite part of the building, and then when the Port Authority announced that their scrapping that plan, the attitude of these same people quickly becomes, "Well the glass prism design was ugly to begin with and I never like it and I prefer the base to be without the glass prisms." This reeks of apologism. The same thing happened when the plan for the opening-closing oculus was scrapped. It also happened when the plan for a restaurant atop 1WTC was scrapped - out of nowhere people started saying, "Well it was a stupid idea to begin with." In 3-4 years I never heard a single person say they prefered the pools to be non-reflective and for the walls and base to be black. But look this was never intended to grow into such a drawn out and ridiculous debate. If you prefer this...



    ...then fine, we can all have our own opinion.

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